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How Can You Tell If Your Recommender System Is Any Good?

#artificialintelligence

It's an exciting time to be working on recommender systems. Not only are they more relevant than ever before, with Facebook recently investing in a 12 trillion parameter model and Amazon estimating that 35% of their purchases come from recommendations, but there is a wealth of powerful, cutting edge techniques with code available for anyone to try. So the tools are at hand to build something neat to deliver personalized recommendations to your users! The problem is, knowing if it's any good. When John Harrison was developing the marine chronometer, which revolutionized long-distance sea travel by allowing ships to accurately determine their longitude, he had a problem with evaluation: to measure the device's accuracy in practice required a long sea voyage. Similarly, the gold standard for evaluating a recommender system is expensive and time consuming: an A/B test, in which real users selected at random see the new model, and their behavior is compared to users who saw the old model. In both cases if this was the only way to evaluate, it would be impossible to try out new ideas with agility, or to quickly iron out flaws. Instead, it's necessary to have a quick, cheap way to evaluate a model.


The Importance of Location in Real Estate, Weather, and Machine Learning

#artificialintelligence

Real estate experts like to say that the three most important features of a property are: location, location, location! Likewise, weather events are highly location-dependent. We will see below how a similar perspective is also applicable to machine learning algorithms. In real estate, the buyer is first and foremost concerned about location for at least 3 reasons: (a) the desirability of the surrounding neighborhood; (b) the proximity to schools, businesses, services, etc.; and (c) the value of properties in that area. Similarly, meteorologists tell us that all weather is local.


What Makes an Artist in the Age of Algorithms?

WIRED

In 2021, technology's role in how art is generated remains up for debate and discovery. From the rise of NFTs to the proliferation of techno-artists who use generative adversarial networks to produce visual expressions, to smartphone apps that write new music, creatives and technologists are continually experimenting with how art is produced, consumed, and monetized. BT, the Grammy-nominated composer of 2010's These Hopeful Machines, has emerged as a world leader at the intersection of tech and music. Beyond producing and writing for the likes of David Bowie, Death Cab for Cutie, Madonna, and the Roots, and composing scores for The Fast and the Furious, Smallville, and many other shows and movies, he's helped pioneer production techniques like stutter editing and granular synthesis. This past spring, BT released GENESIS.JSON, a piece of software that contains 24 hours of original music and visual art.


Using Logistic Regression in Machine Learning with Python

#artificialintelligence

Recapping the primary step when conducting a model analysis, it is always important to import libraries and modules to access specific features. The standard imports are added, such as Matplotlib, pandas, NumPy and seaborn, as well as sklearn which allows us to split our sets into testing and training sets, along with the preprocessing of our data. On the 7th and 8th lines, we integrate TensorFlow with Keras. Keras is a high-level API of TensorFlow, so we must import them this way. The data being explored is a set consisting of patients' tumour data. Depending on the tumour size, our data will tell us if the patient is susceptible to cancer or not. Below is the data of the first 10 patients in the dataset. There are 101 patients in total.


Analyze Health Insurance Data using RStudio

#artificialintelligence

It shows that the majority of the cases fall below 10000. The table function is used to get the count of each combination of Factor levels of the region column. It says 325 rows fall in the region northeast, 326 in the northwest, 364 in the southeast, and 325 in the southwest. Now we need to check for the existence of any relationships among features.


K means clustering using scala spark

#artificialintelligence

K means clustering is a method of vector quantization which is used to partition n observation into k cluster in which each observation belongs to the cluster with nearest means. For real estate firm you want to make a recommend engine. We want to recommend their customers suitable houses for this we are considering the following features. Clustering is an unsupervised learning method, in which we are trying to find the relation between n observations. In the above example we are trying to find the relation between the three feature and giving a recommendation to the customer.


Differential Music: Automated Music Generation Using LSTM Networks with Representation Based on Melodic and Harmonic Intervals

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

This paper presents a generative AI model for automated music composition with LSTM networks that takes a novel approach at encoding musical information which is based on movement in music rather than absolute pitch. Melodies are encoded as a series of intervals rather than a series of pitches, and chords are encoded as the set of intervals that each chord note makes with the melody at each timestep. Experimental results show promise as they sound musical and tonal. There are also weaknesses to this method, mainly excessive modulations in the compositions, but that is expected from the nature of the encoding. This issue is discussed later in the paper and is a potential topic for future work.


Airbert: In-domain Pretraining for Vision-and-Language Navigation

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Vision-and-language navigation (VLN) aims to enable embodied agents to navigate in realistic environments using natural language instructions. Given the scarcity of domain-specific training data and the high diversity of image and language inputs, the generalization of VLN agents to unseen environments remains challenging. Recent methods explore pretraining to improve generalization, however, the use of generic image-caption datasets or existing small-scale VLN environments is suboptimal and results in limited improvements. In this work, we introduce BnB, a large-scale and diverse in-domain VLN dataset. We first collect image-caption (IC) pairs from hundreds of thousands of listings from online rental marketplaces. Using IC pairs we next propose automatic strategies to generate millions of VLN path-instruction (PI) pairs. We further propose a shuffling loss that improves the learning of temporal order inside PI pairs. We use BnB pretrain our Airbert model that can be adapted to discriminative and generative settings and show that it outperforms state of the art for Room-to-Room (R2R) navigation and Remote Referring Expression (REVERIE) benchmarks. Moreover, our in-domain pretraining significantly increases performance on a challenging few-shot VLN evaluation, where we train the model only on VLN instructions from a few houses.


A Framework for an Assessment of the Kernel-target Alignment in Tree Ensemble Kernel Learning

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Kernels ensuing from tree ensembles such as random forest (RF) or gradient boosted trees (GBT), when used for kernel learning, have been shown to be competitive to their respective tree ensembles (particularly in higher dimensional scenarios). On the other hand, it has been also shown that performance of the kernel algorithms depends on the degree of the kernel-target alignment. However, the kernel-target alignment for kernel learning based on the tree ensembles has not been investigated and filling this gap is the main goal of our work. Using the eigenanalysis of the kernel matrix, we demonstrate that for continuous targets good performance of the tree-based kernel learning is associated with strong kernel-target alignment. Moreover, we show that well performing tree ensemble based kernels are characterized by strong target aligned components that are expressed through scalar products between the eigenvectors of the kernel matrix and the target. This suggests that when tree ensemble based kernel learning is successful, relevant information for the supervised problem is concentrated near lower dimensional manifold spanned by the target aligned components. Persistence of the strong target aligned components in tree ensemble based kernels is further supported by sensitivity analysis via landmark learning. In addition to a comprehensive simulation study, we also provide experimental results from several real life data sets that are in line with the simulations.


ALLNet: A Hybrid Convolutional Neural Network to Improve Diagnosis of Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia (ALL) in White Blood Cells

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Due to morphological similarity at the microscopic level, making an accurate and time-sensitive distinction between blood cells affected by Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia (ALL) and their healthy counterparts calls for the usage of machine learning architectures. However, three of the most common models, VGG, ResNet, and Inception, each come with their own set of flaws with room for improvement which demands the need for a superior model. ALLNet, the proposed hybrid convolutional neural network architecture, consists of a combination of the VGG, ResNet, and Inception models. The ALL Challenge dataset of ISBI 2019 (available here) contains 10,691 images of white blood cells which were used to train and test the models. 7,272 of the images in the dataset are of cells with ALL and 3,419 of them are of healthy cells. Of the images, 60% were used to train the model, 20% were used for the cross-validation set, and 20% were used for the test set. ALLNet outperformed the VGG, ResNet, and the Inception models across the board, achieving an accuracy of 92.6567%, a sensitivity of 95.5304%, a specificity of 85.9155%, an AUC score of 0.966347, and an F1 score of 0.94803 in the cross-validation set. In the test set, ALLNet achieved an accuracy of 92.0991%, a sensitivity of 96.5446%, a specificity of 82.8035%, an AUC score of 0.959972, and an F1 score of 0.942963. The utilization of ALLNet in the clinical workspace can better treat the thousands of people suffering from ALL across the world, many of whom are children.