If you are looking for an answer to the question What is Artificial Intelligence? and you only have a minute, then here's the definition the Association for the Advancement of Artificial Intelligence offers on its home page: "the scientific understanding of the mechanisms underlying thought and intelligent behavior and their embodiment in machines."
However, if you are fortunate enough to have more than a minute, then please get ready to embark upon an exciting journey exploring AI (but beware, it could last a lifetime) …
Krafton said it will leverage hyperrealism character production technology to create digital avatars of humans and also tap into artificial intelligence (AI), text-to-speech, speech-to-text, and voice-to-face to improve their communication skills. The virtual humans will also exhibit motion-captured vivid movements, pupil movements, a wide range of facial expressions, and hairs on the skin. Last month, at a town hall, Krafton CEO CH Kim had said the company will actively leverage new technologies to offer unique experiences to gamers and creators. "We are geared up for realising an interactive virtual world (Metaverse) in stages and will continue to introduce more advanced versions of virtual humans and content based on the belief in the infinite scalability of such technologies," Shin Seok-jin, creative director at Krafton said in a statement. Hyperrealism is an old art concept that has inspired artists to create sculptures and paintings that give the illusion of being real. In the present day, it has struck a chord with game developers and animators who now have access to the tools to make digital characters look like real people.
It is the nature of our cognitive systems that we alternate between heuristics and deliberative reasoning. Heuristics are reasoning'shortcuts' based on patterns that help speed up decision making in familiar circumstances. Deliberation takes more attention and energy, but it can go beyond immediately available information and enables complex computations, comparisons, planning, and choice. This'dual mind' theory--as brought to popular attention in books by Kahneman,3 Rugg,7 and Evans1--explains why the heuristics associated with evolution for survival in a dangerous hunter-gatherer world are also responsible for causing systematic biases in our judgments. Says Kahneman: "Jumping to conclusions is efficient if the conclusions are likely to be correct and the costs of an occasional mistake acceptable. Jumping to conclusions is risky when the situation is unfamiliar, the stakes are high and there is no time to collect more information."
We believe that a Standard Model of the Mind should take into account continuous state representations, continuous timing, continuous actions, continuous learning, and parallel control loops. For each of these, we describe initial models that we have made exploring these directions. While we have demonstrated that it is possible to construct high-level cognitive models with these features (which are uncommon in most cognitive modeling approaches), there are many theoretical challenges still to be faced to allow these features to interact in useful ways and to characterize what may be gained by including these features.
Interactive Narrative often involves dialogue with virtual dramatic characters. In this paper we compare two kinds of models of character style: one based on models derived from the Big Five theory personality, and the other derived from a corpus-based method applied to characters and films from the IMSDb archive. We apply these models to character utterances for a pilot narrative-based outdoor augmented reality game called Murder in the Arboretum. We use an objective quantitative metric to estimate the quality of a character model, with the aim of predicting model quality without perceptual experiments. We show that corpus-based character models derived from individual characters are often more detailed and specific than personality based models, but that there is a strong correlation between personality judgments of original character dialogue and personality judgments of utterances generated for Murder in the Arboretum that use the derived character models.
This chapter focuses on the evolution of Human-Centered Design (HCD) in aerospace systems over the last forty years. Human Factors and Ergonomics first shifted from the study of physical and medical issues to cognitive issues circa the 1980s. The advent of computers brought with it the development of human-computer interaction (HCI), which then expanded into the field of digital interaction design and User Experience (UX). We ended up with the concept of interactive cockpits, not because pilots interacted with mechanical things, but because they interacted using pointing devices on computer displays. Since the early 2000s, complexity and organizational issues gained prominence to the point that complex systems design and management found itself center stage, with the spotlight on the role of the human element and organizational setups. Today, Human Systems Integration (HSI) is no longer only a single-agent problem, but a multi-agent research field. Systems are systems of systems, considered as representations of people and machines. They are made of statically and dynamically articulated structures and functions. When they are at work, they are living organisms that generate emerging functions and structures that need to be considered in evolution (i.e., in their constant redesign). This chapter will more specifically, focus on human factors such as human-centered systemic representations, life critical systems, organizational issues, complexity management, modeling and simulation, flexibility, tangibility and autonomy. The discussion will be based on several examples in civil aviation and air combat, as well as aerospace.
This is Part II of the two-part comprehensive survey devoted to a computing framework most commonly known under the names Hyperdimensional Computing and Vector Symbolic Architectures (HDC/VSA). Both names refer to a family of computational models that use high-dimensional distributed representations and rely on the algebraic properties of their key operations to incorporate the advantages of structured symbolic representations and vector distributed representations. Holographic Reduced Representations is an influential HDC/VSA model that is well-known in the machine learning domain and often used to refer to the whole family. However, for the sake of consistency, we use HDC/VSA to refer to the area. Part I of this survey covered foundational aspects of the area, such as historical context leading to the development of HDC/VSA, key elements of any HDC/VSA model, known HDC/VSA models, and transforming input data of various types into high-dimensional vectors suitable for HDC/VSA. This second part surveys existing applications, the role of HDC/VSA in cognitive computing and architectures, as well as directions for future work. Most of the applications lie within the machine learning/artificial intelligence domain, however we also cover other applications to provide a thorough picture. The survey is written to be useful for both newcomers and practitioners.
This post was originally featured on the 30SecondsToFly blog in 2017. Ready Player One, Ernest Cline's first novel (soon to be adapted to film by Steven Spielberg), portrays a futuristic dystopian society that consumed all the energetic resources on earth and spends most of its time emerged in a Virtual Reality platform, the Oasis. Besides the brilliant references and tributes to the '80s presented in the book, the author also makes some propositions about the role Artificial Intelligence will play in our lives in a (not so) distant future. Instead of going to the physical stores to complain about a product or a service, the customers only have to put on their VR headsets and introduce their requests and complaints to a virtual assistant (who is operated anywhere else in the world by another human being). In one of the book's chapters, an interaction between a customer and an IT assistant takes place inside of the Oasis.
Smart technology is already all around us. Whether we're fully aware of it or not, it tracks our digital footprint every step of the way. Whether it's location tracking, personalized ads, or even keyboard word suggestions, there's always an algorithm standing behind it. We experience its influence in our lives often without even realizing it's there. We feed the machines based on our knowledge, experience, and perceptions – and there's nothing wrong with that. But as humans, we're also naturally loaded with cognitive imperfections, influencing our daily lives without us even noticing it.
"As this technology continues to improve, it will have a significant impact on how clinical training is conducted in psychology and medicine," said psychologist and virtual reality technology expert Albert "Skip" Rizzo, PhD, who demonstrated recent advancements in virtual reality for use in psychology. Virtual humans can now be highly interactive, artificially intelligent and capable of carrying on a conversation with real humans, according to Rizzo, a research scientist at the University of Southern California Institute for Creative Technologies. "This has set the stage for the'birth' of intelligent virtual humans to be used in clinical training settings," he said. Rizzo showed videos of clinical psychiatry trainees engaging with virtual patients called "Justin" and "Justina." Justin is a 16-year-old with a conduct disorder who is being forced by his family to participate in therapy.