label ranking


Preference rules for label ranking: Mining patterns in multi-target relations

arXiv.org Machine Learning

In this paper we investigate two variants of association rules for preference data, Label Ranking Association Rules and Pairwise Association Rules. Label Ranking Association Rules (LRAR) are the equivalent of Class Association Rules (CAR) for the Label Ranking task. In CAR, the consequent is a single class, to which the example is expected to belong to. In LRAR, the consequent is a ranking of the labels. The generation of LRAR requires special support and confidence measures to assess the similarity of rankings. In this work, we carry out a sensitivity analysis of these similarity-based measures. We want to understand which datasets benefit more from such measures and which parameters have more influence in the accuracy of the model. Furthermore, we propose an alternative type of rules, the Pairwise Association Rules (PAR), which are defined as association rules with a set of pairwise preferences in the consequent. While PAR can be used both as descriptive and predictive models, they are essentially descriptive models. Experimental results show the potential of both approaches.


A Structured Prediction Approach for Label Ranking

Neural Information Processing Systems

We propose to solve a label ranking problem as a structured output regression task. In this view, we adopt a least square surrogate loss approach that solves a supervised learning problem in two steps: a regression step in a well-chosen feature space and a pre-image (or decoding) step. We use specific feature maps/embeddings for ranking data, which convert any ranking/permutation into a vector representation. These embeddings are all well-tailored for our approach, either by resulting in consistent estimators, or by solving trivially the pre-image problem which is often the bottleneck in structured prediction. Their extension to the case of incomplete or partial rankings is also discussed. Finally, we provide empirical results on synthetic and real-world datasets showing the relevance of our method.


A Structured Prediction Approach for Label Ranking

Neural Information Processing Systems

We propose to solve a label ranking problem as a structured output regression task. In this view, we adopt a least square surrogate loss approach that solves a supervised learning problem in two steps: a regression step in a well-chosen feature space and a pre-image (or decoding) step. We use specific feature maps/embeddings for ranking data, which convert any ranking/permutation into a vector representation. These embeddings are all well-tailored for our approach, either by resulting in consistent estimators, or by solving trivially the pre-image problem which is often the bottleneck in structured prediction. Their extension to the case of incomplete or partial rankings is also discussed. Finally, we provide empirical results on synthetic and real-world datasets showing the relevance of our method.


A Structured Prediction Approach for Label Ranking

arXiv.org Machine Learning

We propose to solve a label ranking problem as a structured output regression task. We adopt a least square surrogate loss approach that solves a supervised learning problem in two steps: the regression step in a well-chosen feature space and the pre-image step. We use specific feature maps/embeddings for ranking data, which convert any ranking/permutation into a vector representation. These embeddings are all well-tailored for our approach, either by resulting in consistent estimators, or by solving trivially the pre-image problem which is often the bottleneck in structured prediction. We also propose their natural extension to the case of partial rankings and prove their efficiency on real-world datasets.


ROAR: Robust Label Ranking for Social Emotion Mining

AAAI Conferences

Understanding and predicting latent emotions of users toward online contents, known as social emotion mining, has become increasingly important to both social platforms and businesses alike. Despite recent developments, however, very little attention has been made to the issues of nuance, subjectivity, and bias of social emotions. In this paper, we fill this gap by formulating social emotion mining as a robust label ranking problem, and propose: (1) a robust measure, named as G-mean-rank (GMR), which sets a formal criterion consistent with practical intuition; and (2) a simple yet effective label ranking model, named as ROAR, that is more robust toward unbalanced datasets (which are common). Through comprehensive empirical validation using 4 real datasets and 16 benchmark semi-synthetic label ranking datasets, and a case study, we demonstrate the superiorities of our proposals over 2 popular label ranking measures and 6 competing label ranking algorithms. The datasets and implementations used in the empirical validation are available for access.


Random Forest for Label Ranking

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Label ranking aims to learn a mapping from instances to rankings over a finite number of predefined labels. Random forest is a powerful and one of the most successfully general-purpose machine learning algorithms of modern times. In the literature, there seems no research has yet been done in applying random forest to label ranking. In this paper, We present a powerful random forest label ranking method which uses random decision trees to retrieve nearest neighbors that are not only similar in the feature space but also in the ranking space. We have developed a novel two-step rank aggregation strategy to effectively aggregate neighboring rankings discovered by the random forest into a final predicted ranking. Compared with existing methods, the new random forest method has many advantages including its intrinsically scalable tree data structure, highly parallel-able computational architecture and much superior performances. We present extensive experimental results to demonstrate that our new method achieves the best predictive accuracy performances compared with state-of-the-art methods for datasets with complete ranking and datasets with only partial ranking information.


Non-linear Label Ranking for Large-scale Prediction of Long-Term User Interests

arXiv.org Machine Learning

We consider the problem of personalization of online services from the viewpoint of ad targeting, where we seek to find the best ad categories to be shown to each user, resulting in improved user experience and increased advertisers' revenue. We propose to address this problem as a task of ranking the ad categories depending on a user's preference, and introduce a novel label ranking approach capable of efficiently learning non-linear, highly accurate models in large-scale settings. Experiments on a real-world advertising data set with more than 3.2 million users show that the proposed algorithm outperforms the existing solutions in terms of both rank loss and top-K retrieval performance, strongly suggesting the benefit of using the proposed model on large-scale ranking problems.


Non-Linear Label Ranking for Large-Scale Prediction of Long-Term User Interests

AAAI Conferences

We consider the problem of personalization of online services from the viewpoint of ad targeting, where we seek to find the best ad categories to be shown to each user, resulting in improved user experience and increased advertiser's revenue. We propose to address this problem as a task of ranking the ad categories depending on a user's preference, and introduce a novel label ranking approach capable of efficiently learning non-linear, highly accurate models in large-scale settings. Experiments on real-world advertising data set with more than 3.2 million users show that the proposed algorithm outperforms the existing solutions in terms of both rank loss and top-K retrieval performance, strongly suggesting the benefit of using the proposed model on large-scale ranking problems.


Multi-Prototype Label Ranking with Novel Pairwise-to-Total-Rank Aggregation

AAAI Conferences

We propose a multi-prototype-based algorithm for online learning of soft pairwise-preferences over labels. The algorithm learns soft label preferences via minimization of the proposed soft rank-loss measure, and can learn from total orders as well as from various types of partial orders. The soft pairwise preference algorithm outputs are further aggregated to produce a total label ranking prediction using a novel aggregation algorithm that outperforms existing aggregation solutions. Experiments on synthetic and real-world data demonstrate state-of-the-art performance of the proposed model.


Multi-Label Learning with PRO Loss

AAAI Conferences

Multi-label learning methods assign multiple labels to one object. In practice, in addition to differentiating relevant labels from irrelevant ones, it is often desired to rank the relevant labels for an object, whereas the rankings of irrelevant labels are not important. Such a requirement, however, cannot be met because most existing methods were designed to optimize existing criteria, yet there is no criterion which encodes the aforementioned requirement. In this paper, we present a new criterion, Pro Loss, concerning the prediction on all labels as well as the rankings of only relevant labels. We then propose ProSVM which optimizes Pro Lossefficiently using alternating direction method of multipliers. We further improve its efficiency with an upper approximation that reduces the number of constraints from O ( T , 2 ) to O ( T ), where T is the number of labels. Experiments show that our proposals are not only superior on Pro Loss, but also highly competitive on existing evaluation criteria.