inductive learning

Supervised Learning vs Unsupervised & Semi Supervised in One Picture


Machine learning algorithms learn in three ways: unsupervised, supervised, and semi supervised. This picture illustrates the differences between the three types.

Semi-Supervised Learning with Adversarially Missing Label Information

Neural Information Processing Systems

We address the problem of semi-supervised learning in an adversarial setting. Instead of assuming that labels are missing at random, we analyze a less favorable scenario where the label information can be missing partially and arbitrarily, which is motivated by several practical examples. Motivated by the analysis, we formulate a convex optimization problem for parameter estimation, derive an efficient algorithm, and analyze its convergence. We provide experimental results on several standard data sets showing the robustness of our algorithm to the pattern of missing label information, outperforming several strong baselines. Papers published at the Neural Information Processing Systems Conference.

Good Semi-supervised Learning That Requires a Bad GAN

Neural Information Processing Systems

Semi-supervised learning methods based on generative adversarial networks (GANs) obtained strong empirical results, but it is not clear 1) how the discriminator benefits from joint training with a generator, and 2) why good semi-supervised classification performance and a good generator cannot be obtained at the same time. Theoretically we show that given the discriminator objective, good semi-supervised learning indeed requires a bad generator, and propose the definition of a preferred generator. Empirically, we derive a novel formulation based on our analysis that substantially improves over feature matching GANs, obtaining state-of-the-art results on multiple benchmark datasets. Papers published at the Neural Information Processing Systems Conference.

Structure Regularization for Structured Prediction

Neural Information Processing Systems

While there are many studies on weight regularization, the study on structure regularization is rare. Many existing systems on structured prediction focus on increasing the level of structural dependencies within the model. However, this trend could have been misdirected, because our study suggests that complex structures are actually harmful to generalization ability in structured prediction. To control structure-based overfitting, we propose a structure regularization framework via \emph{structure decomposition}, which decomposes training samples into mini-samples with simpler structures, deriving a model with better generalization power. We show both theoretically and empirically that structure regularization can effectively control overfitting risk and lead to better accuracy.

Regularized Boost for Semi-Supervised Learning

Neural Information Processing Systems

Semi-supervised inductive learning concerns how to learn a decision rule from a data set containing both labeled and unlabeled data. Several boosting algorithms have been extended to semi-supervised learning with various strategies. To our knowledge, however, none of them takes local smoothness constraints among data into account during ensemble learning. In this paper, we introduce a local smoothness regularizer to semi-supervised boosting algorithms based on the universal optimization framework of margin cost functionals. Our regularizer is applicable to existing semi-supervised boosting algorithms to improve their generalization and speed up their training.

Posterior Consistency of the Silverman g-prior in Bayesian Model Choice

Neural Information Processing Systems

Kernel supervised learning methods can be unified by utilizing the tools from regularization theory. The duality between regularization and prior leads to interpreting regularization methods in terms of maximum a posteriori estimation and has motivated Bayesian interpretations of kernel methods. In this paper we pursue a Bayesian interpretation of sparsity in the kernel setting by making use of a mixture of a point-mass distribution and prior that we refer to as Silverman's g-prior.'' We provide a theoretical analysis of the posterior consistency of a Bayesian model choice procedure based on this prior. We also establish the asymptotic relationship between this procedure and the Bayesian information criterion.

A Rate Distortion Approach for Semi-Supervised Conditional Random Fields

Neural Information Processing Systems

We propose a novel information theoretic approach for semi-supervised learning of conditional random fields. Our approach defines a training objective that combines the conditional likelihood on labeled data and the mutual information on unlabeled data. Different from previous minimum conditional entropy semi-supervised discriminative learning methods, our approach can be naturally cast into the rate distortion theory framework in information theory. We analyze the tractability of the framework for structured prediction and present a convergent variational training algorithm to defy the combinatorial explosion of terms in the sum over label configurations. Papers published at the Neural Information Processing Systems Conference.

More data means less inference: A pseudo-max approach to structured learning

Neural Information Processing Systems

The problem of learning to predict structured labels is of key importance in many applications. However, for general graph structure both learning and inference in this setting are intractable. Here we show that it is possible to circumvent this difficulty when the input distribution is rich enough via a method similar in spirit to pseudo-likelihood. We show how our new method achieves consistency, and illustrate empirically that it indeed performs as well as exact methods when sufficiently large training sets are used. Papers published at the Neural Information Processing Systems Conference.

Semi-supervised Learning using Sparse Eigenfunction Bases

Neural Information Processing Systems

We present a new framework for semi-supervised learning with sparse eigenfunction bases of kernel matrices. It turns out that when the \emph{cluster assumption} holds, that is, when the high density regions are sufficiently separated by low density valleys, each high density area corresponds to a unique representative eigenvector. Linear combination of such eigenvectors (or, more precisely, of their Nystrom extensions) provide good candidates for good classification functions. By first choosing an appropriate basis of these eigenvectors from unlabeled data and then using labeled data with Lasso to select a classifier in the span of these eigenvectors, we obtain a classifier, which has a very sparse representation in this basis. Importantly, the sparsity appears naturally from the cluster assumption.

Regularized Learning with Networks of Features

Neural Information Processing Systems

For many supervised learning problems, we possess prior knowledge about which features yield similar information about the target variable. In predicting the topic of a document, we might know that two words are synonyms, or when performing image recognition, we know which pixels are adjacent. Such synonymous or neighboring features are near-duplicates and should therefore be expected to have similar weights in a good model. Here we present a framework for regularized learning in settings where one has prior knowledge about which features are expected to have similar and dissimilar weights. This prior knowledge is encoded as a graph whose vertices represent features and whose edges represent similarities and dissimilarities between them.