If you are looking for an answer to the question What is Artificial Intelligence? and you only have a minute, then here's the definition the Association for the Advancement of Artificial Intelligence offers on its home page: "the scientific understanding of the mechanisms underlying thought and intelligent behavior and their embodiment in machines."
However, if you are fortunate enough to have more than a minute, then please get ready to embark upon an exciting journey exploring AI (but beware, it could last a lifetime) …
Neural Computing & Applications is an international journal which publishes original research and other information in the field of practical applications of neural computing and related techniques such as genetic algorithms, fuzzy logic and neuro-fuzzy systems. Featured contributions fall into several categories: Original Articles, Review Articles, Book Reviews, and Announcements. The Original Articles will be high-quality contributions, representing new and significant research, developments or applications of practical use and value. They will be reviewed by at least two referees. For all queries relating to papers after submission, please contact the Journal Editorial Office via "contact us" at Editorial Manager.
As you already know, AI is one of the leading technologies in the world today, and people are talking about it much more than ever. We now can find AI applications every where: from finances, marketing, healthcare, to autonomous vehicles, security, or robotics. However, the domain of AI still lacks of qualified employees while the number of investments in AI is increasing rapidly. Thus, open a great opporturnity for people having a background in this domain. After several years of researching and working in AI, now I'd like to share my knowledge and my experiences to people who want to learn about AI, because I really hope that my small contribution can help many ones find a fast and easy way in learning AI.
Several outbreak prediction models for COVID-19 are being used by officials around the world to make informed-decisions and enforce relevant control measures. Among the standard models for COVID-19 global pandemic prediction, simple epidemiological and statistical models have received more attention by authorities, and they are popular in the media. Due to a high level of uncertainty and lack of essential data, standard models have shown low accuracy for long-term prediction. Although the literature includes several attempts to address this issue, the essential generalization and robustness abilities of existing models needs to be improved. This paper presents a comparative analysis of machine learning and soft computing models to predict the COVID-19 outbreak as an alternative to SIR and SEIR models.
In relational approach to general rough sets, ideas of directed relations are supplemented with additional conditions for multiple algebraic approaches in this research paper. The relations are also specialized to representations of general parthood that are upper-directed, reflexive and antisymmetric for a better behaved groupoidal semantics over the set of roughly equivalent objects by the first author. Another distinct algebraic semantics over the set of approximations, and a new knowledge interpretation are also invented in this research by her. Because of minimal conditions imposed on the relations, neighborhood granulations are used in the construction of all approximations (granular and pointwise). Necessary and sufficient conditions for the lattice of local upper approximations to be completely distributive are proved by the second author. These results are related to formal concept analysis. Applications to student centered learning and decision making are also outlined.
We revisit Zadeh's notion of "evidence of the second kind" and show that it provides the foundation for a general theory of epistemic random fuzzy sets, which generalizes both the Dempster-Shafer theory of belief functions and Possibility theory. In this perspective, Dempster-Shafer theory deals with belief functions generated by random sets, while Possibility theory deals with belief functions induced by fuzzy sets. The more general theory allows us to represent and combine evidence that is both uncertain and fuzzy. We demonstrate the application of this formalism to statistical inference, and show that it makes it possible to reconcile the possibilistic interpretation of likelihood with Bayesian inference.
Information granules have been considered to be the fundamental constructs of Granular Computing (GrC). As a useful unsupervised learning technique, Fuzzy C-Means (FCM) is one of the most frequently used methods to construct information granules. The FCM-based granulation-degranulation mechanism plays a pivotal role in GrC. In this paper, to enhance the quality of the degranulation (reconstruction) process, we augment the FCM-based degranulation mechanism by introducing a vector of fuzzification factors (fuzzification factor vector) and setting up an adjustment mechanism to modify the prototypes and the partition matrix. The design is regarded as an optimization problem, which is guided by a reconstruction criterion. In the proposed scheme, the initial partition matrix and prototypes are generated by the FCM. Then a fuzzification factor vector is introduced to form an appropriate fuzzification factor for each cluster to build up an adjustment scheme of modifying the prototypes and the partition matrix. With the supervised learning mode of the granulation-degranulation process, we construct a composite objective function of the fuzzification factor vector, the prototypes and the partition matrix. Subsequently, the particle swarm optimization (PSO) is employed to optimize the fuzzification factor vector to refine the prototypes and develop the optimal partition matrix. Finally, the reconstruction performance of the FCM algorithm is enhanced. We offer a thorough analysis of the developed scheme. In particular, we show that the classical FCM algorithm forms a special case of the proposed scheme. Experiments completed for both synthetic and publicly available datasets show that the proposed approach outperforms the generic data reconstruction approach.
My friend Robert John, professor of computer science at the University of Nottingham, who has died of liver cancer aged 64, pioneered the use of "type-2 fuzzy sets" in computational intelligence, to establish ways of reasoning algorithmically about linguistic concepts that involve uncertainty – something humans are good at, but computers are not. In the 1990s, while Rob (as he was known to family, though called Bob by work colleagues) was working at De Montfort University, he became involved in research into solving a community transport scheduling problem using fuzzy logic. Working from the foundations laid by Prof Lotfi Zadeh, Rob, through his PhD in 2000 and subsequent work with Prof Jerry Mendel and others, developed the mathematical techniques to use type-2 fuzzy sets. Two papers on type-2 and interval type-2 that he wrote with Mendel are among the most frequently cited and influential in the world on the topic. Rob was a founder member in 1995 of the Centre for Computational Intelligence at De Montfort and led its growth through the 2000s, established his reputation in the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers' conferences and in journals on fuzzy logic, and was promoted over time to deputy dean.
The process of information fusion needs to deal with a large number of uncertain information with multi-source, heterogeneity, inaccuracy, unreliability, and incompleteness. In practical engineering applications, Dempster-Shafer evidence theory is widely used in multi-source information fusion owing to its effectiveness in data fusion. Information sources have an important impact on multi-source information fusion in an environment of complex, unstable, uncertain, and incomplete characteristics. To address multi-source information fusion problem, this paper considers the situation of uncertain information modeling from the closed world to the open world assumption and studies the generation of basic probability assignment (BPA) with incomplete information. In this paper, a new method is proposed to generate generalized basic probability assignment (GBPA) based on the triangular fuzzy number model under the open world assumption. The proposed method can not only be used in different complex environments simply and flexibly, but also have less information loss in information processing. Finally, a series of comprehensive experiments basing on the UCI data sets are used to verify the rationality and superiority of the proposed method.
Generating music with emotion similar to that of an input video is a very relevant issue nowadays. Video content creators and automatic movie directors benefit from maintaining their viewers engaged, which can be facilitated by producing novel material eliciting stronger emotions in them. Moreover, there's currently a demand for more empathetic computers to aid humans in applications such as augmenting the perception ability of visually and/or hearing impaired people. Current approaches overlook the video's emotional characteristics in the music generation step, only consider static images instead of videos, are unable to generate novel music, and require a high level of human effort and skills. In this study, we propose a novel hybrid deep neural network that uses an Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System to predict a video's emotion from its visual features and a deep Long Short-Term Memory Recurrent Neural Network to generate its corresponding audio signals with similar emotional inkling. The former is able to appropriately model emotions due to its fuzzy properties, and the latter is able to model data with dynamic time properties well due to the availability of the previous hidden state information. The novelty of our proposed method lies in the extraction of visual emotional features in order to transform them into audio signals with corresponding emotional aspects for users. Quantitative experiments show low mean absolute errors of 0.217 and 0.255 in the Lindsey and DEAP datasets respectively, and similar global features in the spectrograms. This indicates that our model is able to appropriately perform domain transformation between visual and audio features. Based on experimental results, our model can effectively generate audio that matches the scene eliciting a similar emotion from the viewer in both datasets, and music generated by our model is also chosen more often.
This research work deals with Natural Language Processing (NLP) and extraction of essential information in an explicit form. The most common among the information management strategies is Document Retrieval (DR) and Information Filtering. DR systems may work as combine harvesters, which bring back useful material from the vast fields of raw material. With large amount of potentially useful information in hand, an Information Extraction (IE) system can then transform the raw material by refining and reducing it to a germ of original text. A Document Retrieval system collects the relevant documents carrying the required information, from the repository of texts. An IE system then transforms them into information that is more readily digested and analyzed. It isolates relevant text fragments, extracts relevant information from the fragments, and then arranges together the targeted information in a coherent framework. The thesis presents a new approach for Word Sense Disambiguation using thesaurus. The illustrative examples supports the effectiveness of this approach for speedy and effective disambiguation. A Document Retrieval method, based on Fuzzy Logic has been described and its application is illustrated. A question-answering system describes the operation of information extraction from the retrieved text documents. The process of information extraction for answering a query is considerably simplified by using a Structured Description Language (SDL) which is based on cardinals of queries in the form of who, what, when, where and why. The thesis concludes with the presentation of a novel strategy based on Dempster-Shafer theory of evidential reasoning, for document retrieval and information extraction. This strategy permits relaxation of many limitations, which are inherent in Bayesian probabilistic approach.