If you are looking for an answer to the question What is Artificial Intelligence? and you only have a minute, then here's the definition the Association for the Advancement of Artificial Intelligence offers on its home page: "the scientific understanding of the mechanisms underlying thought and intelligent behavior and their embodiment in machines."
However, if you are fortunate enough to have more than a minute, then please get ready to embark upon an exciting journey exploring AI (but beware, it could last a lifetime) …
A newly published study by University of Michigan researchers shows facial recognition technology in schools presents multiple problems and has limited efficacy. Led by Shobita Parthasarathy, director of the university's Science, Technology, and Public Policy (STPP) program, the research say the technology isn't suited to security purposes and can actively promote racial discrimination, normalize surveillance, and erode privacy while institutionalizing inaccuracy and marginalizing non-conforming students. The study follows the New York legislature's passage of a moratorium on the use of facial recognition and other forms of biometric identification in schools until 2022. The bill, which came in response to the launch of facial recognition by the Lockport City School District, was among the first in the nation to explicitly regulate or ban use of the technology in schools. That development came after companies including Amazon, IBM, and Microsoft halted or ended the sale of facial recognition products in response to the first wave of Black Lives Matter protests in the U.S. The Michigan University study -- a part of STPP's Technology Assessment Project -- employs an analogical case comparison method to look at previous uses of security technology like CCTV cameras and metal detectors as well as biometric technologies and anticipate the implications of facial recognition.
In many of the conversations with our (potential) customers, we discuss the power of artificial intelligence. In many publications the usage of AI is almost promoted as "the land of milk and honey" -- but those with a bit of experience will be able to tell you that using AI is not always the answer, and it's not as easy to implement as many try to make you believe. But with the right use-cases defined, it can help your company -- or you as a person -- make life easier or create specific added value. I'd like to tell you about how AI improved my personal life in five examples. With each of the examples, I will refer to a business or use-case that could be of value to you.
Currently, Artificial Intelligence (AI) is progressing at a great pace and deep learning is one of the main reasons for this, so all the people need to get a basic understanding of it. Deep Learning is a subset of Machine Learning, which in turn is a subset of Artificial Intelligence. Deep Learning uses a class of algorithms called artificial neural networks which are inspired by the way the biological neural network functions inside the brain. The advancement in the field of deep learning is due to the tremendous increase in computational power and the presence of a huge amount of data. Deep learning is very much efficient in problem-solving as compared to other traditional machine learning algorithms.
Ubiquitous facial recognition is a serious threat to privacy. The idea that the photos we share are being collected by companies to train algorithms that are sold commercially is worrying. Anyone can buy these tools, snap a photo of a stranger, and find out who they are in seconds. But researchers have come up with a clever way to help combat this problem. The solution is a tool named Fawkes, and was created by scientists at the University of Chicago's Sand Lab.
"I personally think that no matter which approach you use, you lose," said Emily Wenger, a Ph.D. student who helped create Fawkes. "You can have these technological solutions, but it's a cat-and-mouse game. And you can have a law, but there will always be illegal actors." Ms. Wenger thinks "a two-prong approach" is needed, where individuals have technological tools and a privacy law to protect themselves. Elizabeth Joh, a law professor at the University of California, Davis, has written about tools like Fawkes as "privacy protests," where individuals want to thwart surveillance but not for criminal reasons.
Companies involved in face biometrics and other artificial intelligence applications have not come to a consensus on what ethical principles to prioritize, which may cause problems for them as policymakers move to set regulations, according to a new report from EY. Facial recognition check-ins for venues such as airports, hotels and banks, and law enforcement surveillance, including the use of face biometrics, are two of a dozen specific use cases considered in the study. The report'Bridging AI's trust gaps' was developed by EY in collaboration with The Future Society, suggests companies developing and providing AI technologies are misaligned with policymakers, which is creating new risks for them. Third parties may have a role to play in bridging the trust gap, such as with an equivalent to'organic' or'fairtrade' labels, EY argues. For biometric facial recognition, 'fairness and avoiding bias' is the top priority for policymakers, followed by'privacy and data rights' and'transparency.' Among companies, privacy and data rights tops the list followed by'safety and security,' and then transparency.
Just over two weeks after an unprecedented hack led to the compromise of the Twitter accounts of Bill Gates, Elon Musk, Barack Obama, and dozens more, authorities have charged three men in connection with the incident. The alleged "mastermind" is a 17-year-old from Tampa, who will be tried as an adult. There are still plenty of details outstanding about how they might have pulled it off, but court documents show how a trail of bitcoin and IP addresses led investigators to the alleged hackers. A Garmin ransomware hack disrupted more than just workouts during a days-long outage; security researchers see it as part of a troubling trend of "big game hunting" among ransomware groups. In other alarming trends, hackers are breaking into news sites to publish misinformation through their content management systems, giving them an air of legitimacy.
Two of the biggest names in biometrics have issued a joint White Paper detailing the benefits of AI-driven face authentication. The paper, entitled "Enhancing Trust with AI-Driven Biometrics", is jointly presented by FaceTec and Jumio, ID verification and authentication specialists leading the current digital onboarding trend with remote enrollment, face authentication and biometric liveness technology. Artificial Intelligence plays an enormously important role in their solutions, and accordingly, it's a major focus of the paper. Available as an e-book, the paper builds on the idea of the "trust anchor" explored in the previously published White Paper "Trusted Identity From Start to Finish": essentially, the idea is that strong authentication starts with the foundation of an anchor document that provides reliable identity assurance. Establishing a link between the end user's face and this anchor – a passport or a driver's license, for example – allows for the creation of a "trust chain" in which authentication can reliably be performed at any point going forward.
In the 18th century, Hungarian inventor Wolfgang von Kempelen created a never-before-seen chess-playing machine. The automaton, called the Mechanical Turk, could handle a game of chess against a human player, and pretty well with that: it even defeated Napoleon Bonaparte in 1809, during a campaign in Vienna. It was eventually revealed that von Kempelen's invention was an elaborate hoax. The machine, in reality, secretly hid a human chess master who directed every move. The Mechanical Turk was destroyed in the mid-19th century; but hundreds of years later, the story provides a telling metaphor for artificial intelligence.