If you are looking for an answer to the question What is Artificial Intelligence? and you only have a minute, then here's the definition the Association for the Advancement of Artificial Intelligence offers on its home page: "the scientific understanding of the mechanisms underlying thought and intelligent behavior and their embodiment in machines."
However, if you are fortunate enough to have more than a minute, then please get ready to embark upon an exciting journey exploring AI (but beware, it could last a lifetime) …
In this paper, we provide a new framework to study the generalization bound of the learning process for domain adaptation. Without loss of generality, we consider two kinds of representative domain adaptation settings: one is domain adaptation with multiple sources and the other is domain adaptation combining source and target data. In particular, we introduce two quantities that capture the inherent characteristics of domains. For either kind of domain adaptation, based on the two quantities, we then develop the specific Hoeffding-type deviation inequality and symmetrization inequality to achieve the corresponding generalization bound based on the uniform entropy number. By using the resultant generalization bound, we analyze the asymptotic convergence and the rate of convergence of the learning process for such kind of domain adaptation.
Empirical risk minimization offers well-known learning guarantees when training and test data come from the same domain. In the real world, though, we often wish to adapt a classifier from a source domain with a large amount of training data to different target domain with very little training data. In this work we give uniform convergence bounds for algorithms that minimize a convex combination of source and target empirical risk. The bounds explicitly model the inherent trade-off between training on a large but inaccurate source data set and a small but accurate target training set. Our theory also gives results when we have multiple source domains, each of which may have a different number of instances, and we exhibit cases in which minimizing a non-uniform combination of source risks can achieve much lower target error than standard empirical risk minimization.
Domain adaptation algorithms seek to generalize a model trained in a source domain to a new target domain. In many practical cases, the source and target distributions can differ substantially, and in some cases crucial target features may not have support in the source domain. In this paper we introduce an algorithm that bridges the gap between source and target domains by slowly adding both the target features and instances in which the current algorithm is the most confident. Our algorithm is a variant of co-training, and we name it CODA (Co-training for domain adaptation). Unlike the original co-training work, we do not assume a particular feature split.
Deep neural networks, trained with large amount of labeled data, can fail to generalize well when tested with examples from a target domain whose distribution differs from the training data distribution, referred as the source domain. It can be expensive or even infeasible to obtain required amount of labeled data in all possible domains. Unsupervised domain adaptation sets out to address this problem, aiming to learn a good predictive model for the target domain using labeled examples from the source domain but only unlabeled examples from the target domain. Domain alignment approaches this problem by matching the source and target feature distributions, and has been used as a key component in many state-of-the-art domain adaptation methods. However, matching the marginal feature distributions does not guarantee that the corresponding class conditional distributions will be aligned across the two domains.
While domain adaptation has been actively researched, most algorithms focus on the single-source-single-target adaptation setting. In this paper we propose new generalization bounds and algorithms under both classification and regression settings for unsupervised multiple source domain adaptation. Our theoretical analysis naturally leads to an efficient learning strategy using adversarial neural networks: we show how to interpret it as learning feature representations that are invariant to the multiple domain shifts while still being discriminative for the learning task. To this end, we propose multisource domain adversarial networks (MDAN) that approach domain adaptation by optimizing task-adaptive generalization bounds. To demonstrate the effectiveness of MDAN, we conduct extensive experiments showing superior adaptation performance on both classification and regression problems: sentiment analysis, digit classification, and vehicle counting.
However, image data is difficult to manually divide into the discrete domains required by adaptation algorithms, and the standard practice of equating datasets with domains is a weak proxy for all the real conditions that alter the statistics in complex ways (lighting, pose, background, resolution, etc.) We propose an approach to automatically discover latent domains in image or video datasets. Our formulation imposes two key properties on domains: maximum distinctiveness and maximum learnability. By maximum distinctiveness, we require the underlying distributions of the identified domains to be different from each other; by maximum learnability, we ensure that a strong discriminative model can be learned from the domain. We devise a nonparametric representation and efficient optimization procedure for distinctiveness, which, when coupled with our learnability constraint, can successfully discover domains among both training and test data. We extensively evaluate our approach on object recognition and human activity recognition tasks.
Similarity learning is an active research area in machine learning that tackles the problem of finding a similarity function tailored to an observable data sample in order to achieve efficient classification. This learning scenario has been generally formalized by the means of a $(\epsilon, \gamma, \tau)-$good similarity learning framework in the context of supervised classification and has been shown to have strong theoretical guarantees. In this paper, we propose to extend the theoretical analysis of similarity learning to the domain adaptation setting, a particular situation occurring when the similarity is learned and then deployed on samples following different probability distributions. We give a new definition of an $(\epsilon, \gamma)-$good similarity for domain adaptation and prove several results quantifying the performance of a similarity function on a target domain after it has been trained on a source domain. We particularly show that if the source distribution dominates the target one, then principally new domain adaptation learning bounds can be proved.
This work provides a framework for addressing the problem of supervised domain adaptation with deep models. The main idea is to exploit adversarial learning to learn an embedded subspace that simultaneously maximizes the confusion between two domains while semantically aligning their embedding. The supervised setting becomes attractive especially when there are only a few target data samples that need to be labeled. In this few-shot learning scenario, alignment and separation of semantic probability distributions is difficult because of the lack of data. We found that by carefully designing a training scheme whereby the typical binary adversarial discriminator is augmented to distinguish between four different classes, it is possible to effectively address the supervised adaptation problem.
The recent success of deep neural networks relies on massive amounts of labeled data. For a target task where labeled data is unavailable, domain adaptation can transfer a learner from a different source domain. In this paper, we propose a new approach to domain adaptation in deep networks that can jointly learn adaptive classifiers and transferable features from labeled data in the source domain and unlabeled data in the target domain. We relax a shared-classifier assumption made by previous methods and assume that the source classifier and target classifier differ by a residual function. We enable classifier adaptation by plugging several layers into deep network to explicitly learn the residual function with reference to the target classifier.
Studies show that the representations learned by deep neural networks can be transferred to similar prediction tasks in other domains for which we do not have enough labeled data. However, as we transition to higher layers in the model, the representations become more task-specific and less generalizable. Recent research on deep domain adaptation proposed to mitigate this problem by forcing the deep model to learn more transferable feature representations across domains. This is achieved by incorporating domain adaptation methods into deep learning pipeline. The majority of existing models learn the transferable feature representations which are highly correlated with the outcome. However, correlations are not always transferable. In this paper, we propose a novel deep causal representation learning framework for unsupervised domain adaptation, in which we propose to learn domain-invariant causal representations of the input from the source domain. We simulate a virtual target domain using reweighted samples from the source domain and estimate the causal effect of features on the outcomes. The extensive comparative study demonstrates the strengths of the proposed model for unsupervised domain adaptation via causal representations.