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domain adaptation

On Learning Invariant Representations for Domain Adaptation


In domain adaptation the source (training) domain is related to but different from the target (testing) domain. During training, the algorithm can only have access to labeled samples from source domain and unlabeled samples from target domain. The goal is to generalize on the target domain. One of the backbone assumptions underpinning the generalization theory of supervised learning algorithms is that the test distribution should be the same as the training distribution. However in many real-world applications it is usually time-consuming or even infeasible to collect labeled data from all the possible scenarios where our learning system is going to be deployed.

Maintaining the Illusion of Reality: Transfer in RL by Keeping Agents in the DARC


Reinforcement learning (RL) is often touted as a promising approach for costly and risk-sensitive applications, yet practicing and learning in those domains directly is expensive. It costs time (e.g., OpenAI's Dota2 project used 10,000 years of experience), it costs money (e.g., "inexpensive" robotic arms used in research typically cost $10,000 to $30,000), and it could even be dangerous to humans. How can an intelligent agent learn to solve tasks in environments in which it cannot practice? For many tasks, such as assistive robotics and self-driving cars, we may have access to a different practice area, which we will call the source domain. While the source domain has different dynamics than the target domain, experience in the source domain is much cheaper to collect.

Moment-Based Domain Adaptation: Learning Bounds and Algorithms Machine Learning

This thesis contributes to the mathematical foundation of domain adaptation as emerging field in machine learning. In contrast to classical statistical learning, the framework of domain adaptation takes into account deviations between probability distributions in the training and application setting. Domain adaptation applies for a wider range of applications as future samples often follow a distribution that differs from the ones of the training samples. A decisive point is the generality of the assumptions about the similarity of the distributions. Therefore, in this thesis we study domain adaptation problems under as weak similarity assumptions as can be modelled by finitely many moments.

Unsupervised Domain Adaptation with Progressive Domain Augmentation Machine Learning

Domain adaptation aims to exploit a label-rich source domain for learning classifiers in a different label-scarce target domain. It is particularly challenging when there are significant divergences between the two domains. In the paper, we propose a novel unsupervised domain adaptation method based on progressive domain augmentation. The proposed method generates virtual intermediate domains via domain interpolation, progressively augments the source domain and bridges the source-target domain divergence by conducting multiple subspace alignment on the Grassmann manifold. We conduct experiments on multiple domain adaptation tasks and the results shows the proposed method achieves the state-of-the-art performance.

Sequential Learning for Domain Generalization Machine Learning

In this paper we propose a sequential learning framework for Domain Generalization (DG), the problem of training a model that is robust to domain shift by design. Various DG approaches have been proposed with different motivating intuitions, but they typically optimize for a single step of domain generalization -- training on one set of domains and generalizing to one other. Our sequential learning is inspired by the idea lifelong learning, where accumulated experience means that learning the $n^{th}$ thing becomes easier than the $1^{st}$ thing. In DG this means encountering a sequence of domains and at each step training to maximise performance on the next domain. The performance at domain $n$ then depends on the previous $n-1$ learning problems. Thus backpropagating through the sequence means optimizing performance not just for the next domain, but all following domains. Training on all such sequences of domains provides dramatically more `practice' for a base DG learner compared to existing approaches, thus improving performance on a true testing domain. This strategy can be instantiated for different base DG algorithms, but we focus on its application to the recently proposed Meta-Learning Domain generalization (MLDG). We show that for MLDG it leads to a simple to implement and fast algorithm that provides consistent performance improvement on a variety of DG benchmarks.

Towards Stable and Comprehensive Domain Alignment: Max-Margin Domain-Adversarial Training Machine Learning

Domain adaptation tackles the problem of transferring knowledge from a label-rich source domain to a label-scarce or even unlabeled target domain. Recently domain-adversarial training (DAT) has shown promising capacity to learn a domain-invariant feature space by reversing the gradient propagation of a domain classifier. However, DAT is still vulnerable in several aspects including (1) training instability due to the overwhelming discriminative ability of the domain classifier in adversarial training, (2) restrictive feature-level alignment, and (3) lack of interpretability or systematic explanation of the learned feature space. In this paper, we propose a novel Max-margin Domain-Adversarial Training (MDAT) by designing an Adversarial Reconstruction Network (ARN). The proposed MDAT stabilizes the gradient reversing in ARN by replacing the domain classifier with a reconstruction network, and in this manner ARN conducts both feature-level and pixel-level domain alignment without involving extra network structures. Furthermore, ARN demonstrates strong robustness to a wide range of hyper-parameters settings, greatly alleviating the task of model selection. Extensive empirical results validate that our approach outperforms other state-of-the-art domain alignment methods. Moreover, reconstructing adapted features reveals the domain-invariant feature space which conforms with our intuition.

When Autonomous Systems Meet Accuracy and Transferability through AI: A Survey Artificial Intelligence

With widespread applications of artificial intelligence (AI), the capabilities of the perception, understanding, decision-making and control for autonomous systems have improved significantly in the past years. When autonomous systems consider the performance of accuracy and transferability simultaneously, several AI methods, like adversarial learning, reinforcement learning (RL) and meta-learning, show their powerful performance. Here, we review the learning-based approaches in autonomous systems from the perspectives of accuracy and transferability. Accuracy means that a well-trained model shows good results during the testing phase, in which the testing set shares a same task or a data distribution with the training set. Transferability means that when an trained model is transferred to other testing domains, the accuracy is still good. Firstly, we introduce some basic concepts of transfer learning and then present some preliminaries of adversarial learning, RL and meta-learning. Secondly, we focus on reviewing the accuracy and transferability to show the advantages of adversarial learning, like generative adversarial networks (GANs), in typical computer vision tasks in autonomous systems, including image style transfer, image super-resolution, image deblurring/dehazing/rain removal, semantic segmentation, depth estimation and person re-identification. Then, we further review the performance of RL and meta-learning from the aspects of accuracy and transferability in autonomous systems, involving robot navigation and robotic manipulation. Finally, we discuss several challenges and future topics for using adversarial learning, RL and meta-learning in autonomous systems.

ADVENT: Adversarial Entropy Minimization for Domain Adaptation in Semantic Segmentation


This post describes our recent work on unsupervised domain adaptation for semantic segmentation presented at CVPR 2019. ADVENT is a flexible technique for bridging the gap between two different domains through entropy minimization. Our work builds upon a simple observation: models trained only on source domain tend to produce over-confident, i.e., low-entropy, predictions on source-like images and under-confident, i.e., high-entropy, predictions on target-like ones. Consequently by minimizing the entropy on the target domain, we make the feature distributions from the two domains more similar. We show that our approach achieves competitive performances on standard semantic segmentation benchmarks and that it can be successfully extended to other tasks such as object detection.

Unsupervised domain adaptation with exploring more statistics and discriminative information Machine Learning

Unsupervised domain adaptation aims at transferring knowledge from the labeled source domain to the unlabeled target domain. Previous methods mainly learn a domain-invariant feature transformation, where the cross-domain discrepancy can be reduced. Maximum Mean Discrepancy(MMD) is the most popular statistic to measure domain discrepancy. However, these methods may suffer from two challenges. 1) MMD-based methods only measure the first-order statistic information across domains, while other useful information such as second-order statistic information has been ignored. 2) The classifier trained on the source domain may confuse to distinguish the correct class from a similar class, and the phenomenon is called class confusion. In this paper, we propose a method called \emph{Unsupervised domain adaptation with exploring more statistics and discriminative information}(MSDI), which tackle these two problems in the principle of structural risk minimization. We adopt the recently proposed statistic called MMCD to measure domain discrepancy which can capture both first-order and second-order statistics simultaneously in RKHS. Besides, we proposed to learn more discriminative features to avoid class confusion, where the inner of the classifier predictions with their transposes are used to reflect the confusion relationship between different classes. Moreover, we minimizing source empirical risk and adopt manifold regularization to explore geometry information in the target domain. MSDI learns a domain-invariant classifier in a unified learning framework incorporating the above objectives. We conduct comprehensive experiments on five real-world datasets and the results verify the effectiveness of the proposed method.

Impact of ImageNet Model Selection on Domain Adaptation


Content provided by Youshan Zhang, the first author of the paper Impact of ImageNet Model Selection on Domain Adaptation. It is known that training and updating of the machine learning model depend on data annotation. We often have a serious problem that lacks labeled data for training in the real world. Therefore, it is often necessary to transfer knowledge from an existing labeled domain to an unlabeled new domain. However, due to the phenomenon of data bias or domain shift, machine learning models do not generalize well from an existing domain to a novel unlabeled domain.