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dialogue state


Investigating Effect of Dialogue History in Multilingual Task Oriented Dialogue Systems

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

While the English virtual assistants have achieved exciting performance with an enormous amount of training resources, the needs of non-English-speakers have not been satisfied well. Up to Dec 2021, Alexa, one of the most popular smart speakers around the world, is able to support 9 different languages [1], while there are thousands of languages in the world, 91 of which are spoken by more than 10 million people according to statistics published in 2019 [2]. However, training a virtual assistant in other languages than English is often more difficult, especially for those low-resource languages. The lack of high-quality training data restricts the performance of models, resulting in poor user satisfaction. Therefore, we devise an efficient and effective training solution for multilingual task-orientated dialogue systems, using the same dataset generation pipeline and end-to-end dialogue system architecture as BiToD[5], which adopted some key design choices for a minimalistic natural language design where formal dialogue states are used in place of natural language inputs. This reduces the room for error brought by weaker natural language models, and ensures the model can correctly extract the essential slot values needed to perform dialogue state tracking (DST). Our goal is to reduce the amount of natural language encoded at each turn, and the key parameter we investigate is the number of turns (H) to feed as history to model. We first explore the turning point where increasing H begins to yield limiting returns on the overall performance. Then we examine whether the examples a model with small H gets wrong can be categorized in a way for the model to do few-shot finetuning on. Lastly, will explore the limitations of this approach, and whether there is a certain type of examples that this approach will not be able to resolve.


Talk-to-Resolve: Combining scene understanding and spatial dialogue to resolve granular task ambiguity for a collocated robot

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

The utility of collocating robots largely depends on the easy and intuitive interaction mechanism with the human. If a robot accepts task instruction in natural language, first, it has to understand the user's intention by decoding the instruction. However, while executing the task, the robot may face unforeseeable circumstances due to the variations in the observed scene and therefore requires further user intervention. In this article, we present a system called Talk-to-Resolve (TTR) that enables a robot to initiate a coherent dialogue exchange with the instructor by observing the scene visually to resolve the impasse. Through dialogue, it either finds a cue to move forward in the original plan, an acceptable alternative to the original plan, or affirmation to abort the task altogether. To realize the possible stalemate, we utilize the dense captions of the observed scene and the given instruction jointly to compute the robot's next action. We evaluate our system based on a data set of initial instruction and situational scene pairs. Our system can identify the stalemate and resolve them with appropriate dialogue exchange with 82% accuracy. Additionally, a user study reveals that the questions from our systems are more natural (4.02 on average on a scale of 1 to 5) as compared to a state-of-the-art (3.08 on average).


Modular DREAM Socialbot in Alexa Prize

#artificialintelligence

In the spring of 2019, a team of students from the Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology (MIPT) under the leadership of Mikhail Burtsev was selected to participate in the Alexa Prize Challenge 3 from Amazon. That is the official beginning of the DREAM socialbot development which is now alive and is 2 years old already. Our journey in Alexa Prize Challenge 3 ended in May 2020 after the Semifinals as we were not selected to pass to Finals unfortunately. But we managed to create our first version of DREAM socialbot using the open-source DeepPavlov Agent framework. After the Semifinals we spent 4 months adding the support for working with the Knowledge Graphs (KGs), with the goal of eventually open-sourcing the entire bot in the second half of 2020. However, in late September, Amazon announced Alexa Prize Challenge 4, and our application was proudly selected for participation again.


Smoothing Dialogue States for Open Conversational Machine Reading

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Conversational machine reading (CMR) requires machines to communicate with humans through multi-turn interactions between two salient dialogue states of decision making and question generation processes. In open CMR settings, as the more realistic scenario, the retrieved background knowledge would be noisy, which results in severe challenges in the information transmission. Existing studies commonly train independent or pipeline systems for the two subtasks. However, those methods are trivial by using hard-label decisions to activate question generation, which eventually hinders the model performance. In this work, we propose an effective gating strategy by smoothing the two dialogue states in only one decoder and bridge decision making and question generation to provide a richer dialogue state reference. Experiments on the OR-ShARC dataset show the effectiveness of our method, which achieves new state-of-the-art results.


Dual Slot Selector via Local Reliability Verification for Dialogue State Tracking

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

The goal of dialogue state tracking (DST) is to predict the current dialogue state given all previous dialogue contexts. Existing approaches generally predict the dialogue state at every turn from scratch. However, the overwhelming majority of the slots in each turn should simply inherit the slot values from the previous turn. Therefore, the mechanism of treating slots equally in each turn not only is inefficient but also may lead to additional errors because of the redundant slot value generation. To address this problem, we devise the two-stage DSS-DST which consists of the Dual Slot Selector based on the current turn dialogue, and the Slot Value Generator based on the dialogue history. The Dual Slot Selector determines each slot whether to update slot value or to inherit the slot value from the previous turn from two aspects: (1) if there is a strong relationship between it and the current turn dialogue utterances; (2) if a slot value with high reliability can be obtained for it through the current turn dialogue. The slots selected to be updated are permitted to enter the Slot Value Generator to update values by a hybrid method, while the other slots directly inherit the values from the previous turn. Empirical results show that our method achieves 56.93%, 60.73%, and 58.04% joint accuracy on MultiWOZ 2.0, MultiWOZ 2.1, and MultiWOZ 2.2 datasets respectively and achieves a new state-of-the-art performance with significant improvements.


Cost-effective speech-to-text with weakly- and semi-supervised training

AIHub

Voice assistants equipped with speech-to-text technology have seen a major boost in performance and usage, thanks to the new powerful machine learning methods based on deep neural networks. These methods follow a supervised learning approach, requiring large amounts of paired speech-text data to train the best performing speech-to-text transcription models. After collecting large amounts of relevant and diverse spoken utterances, the complex and intensive task of annotating and labelling of the collected speech data awaits. To get a feel for a typical scenario, let's look at some estimates. On average a typical user query, for example "Do you have the Christmas edition with Santa?", would last for about 3 seconds.


Integrating Pre-trained Model into Rule-based Dialogue Management

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Rule-based dialogue management is still the most popular solution for industrial task-oriented dialogue systems for their interpretablility. However, it is hard for developers to maintain the dialogue logic when the scenarios get more and more complex. On the other hand, data-driven dialogue systems, usually with end-to-end structures, are popular in academic research and easier to deal with complex conversations, but such methods require plenty of training data and the behaviors are less interpretable. In this paper, we propose a method to leverages the strength of both rule-based and data-driven dialogue managers (DM). We firstly introduce the DM of Carina Dialog System (CDS, an advanced industrial dialogue system built by Microsoft). Then we propose the "model-trigger" design to make the DM trainable thus scalable to scenario changes. Furthermore, we integrate pre-trained models and empower the DM with few-shot capability. The experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness and strong few-shot capability of our method.


Slot Self-Attentive Dialogue State Tracking

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

An indispensable component in task-oriented dialogue systems is the dialogue state tracker, which keeps track of users' intentions in the course of conversation. The typical approach towards this goal is to fill in multiple pre-defined slots that are essential to complete the task. Although various dialogue state tracking methods have been proposed in recent years, most of them predict the value of each slot separately and fail to consider the correlations among slots. In this paper, we propose a slot self-attention mechanism that can learn the slot correlations automatically. Specifically, a slot-token attention is first utilized to obtain slot-specific features from the dialogue context. Then a stacked slot self-attention is applied on these features to learn the correlations among slots. We conduct comprehensive experiments on two multi-domain task-oriented dialogue datasets, including MultiWOZ 2.0 and MultiWOZ 2.1. The experimental results demonstrate that our approach achieves state-of-the-art performance on both datasets, verifying the necessity and effectiveness of taking slot correlations into consideration.


Knowing What You Know: Calibrating Dialogue Belief State Distributions via Ensembles

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

The ability to accurately track what happens during a conversation is essential for the performance of a dialogue system. Current state-of-the-art multi-domain dialogue state trackers achieve just over 55% accuracy on the current go-to benchmark, which means that in almost every second dialogue turn they place full confidence in an incorrect dialogue state. Belief trackers, on the other hand, maintain a distribution over possible dialogue states. However, they lack in performance compared to dialogue state trackers, and do not produce well calibrated distributions. In this work we present state-of-the-art performance in calibration for multi-domain dialogue belief trackers using a calibrated ensemble of models. Our resulting dialogue belief tracker also outperforms previous dialogue belief tracking models in terms of accuracy.


Multi-Domain Dialogue State Tracking -- A Purely Transformer-Based Generative Approach

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

We investigate the problem of multi-domain Dialogue State Tracking (DST) with open vocabulary. Existing approaches exploit BERT encoder and copy-based RNN decoder, where the encoder first predicts the state operation, and then the decoder generates new slot values. However, in this stacked encoder-decoder structure, the operation prediction objective only affects the BERT encoder and the value generation objective mainly affects the RNN decoder. In this paper, we propose a purely Transformer-based framework that uses BERT as both encoder and decoder. In so doing, the operation prediction objective and the value generation objective can jointly optimize our model for DST. At the decoding step, we re-use the hidden states of the encoder in the self-attention mechanism of the corresponding decoder layer to construct a flat model structure for effective parameter updating. Experimental results show that our approach substantially outperforms the existing state-of-the-art framework, and it also achieves very competitive performance to the best ontology-based approaches.