If you are looking for an answer to the question What is Artificial Intelligence? and you only have a minute, then here's the definition the Association for the Advancement of Artificial Intelligence offers on its home page: "the scientific understanding of the mechanisms underlying thought and intelligent behavior and their embodiment in machines."
However, if you are fortunate enough to have more than a minute, then please get ready to embark upon an exciting journey exploring AI (but beware, it could last a lifetime) …
In the new paper Does BERT Solve Commonsense Task via Commonsense Knowledge?, a team of researchers from Westlake University, Fudan University and Microsoft Research Asia dive deep into the large language model to discover how it encodes the structured commonsense knowledge it leverages on downstream commonsense tasks. The proven successes of pretrained language models such as BERT on various downstream tasks has stimulated research investigating the linguistic knowledge inside the model. Previous studies have revealed shallow syntactic, semantic and word sense knowledge in BERT, however, the question of how BERT deals with commonsense tasks has been relatively unexamined. CommonsenseQA is a multiple-choice question answering dataset built upon the CONCEPTNET knowledge graph. The researchers extracted multiple target concepts with the same semantic relation to a single source concept from CONCEPTNET, where each question has one of three target concepts as the correct answer. For example, "bird" is the source concept in the question "Where does a wild bird usually live?" and "countryside" is the correct answer from the possible target concepts "cage," "windowsill," and "countryside."
Commonsense reasoning is an important aspect of building robust AI systems and is receiving significant attention in the natural language understanding, computer vision, and knowledge graphs communities. At present, a number of valuable commonsense knowledge sources exist, with different foci, strengths, and weaknesses. In this paper, we list representative sources and their properties. Based on this survey, we propose principles and a representation model in order to consolidate them into a Common Sense Knowledge Graph (CSKG). We apply this approach to consolidate seven separate sources into a first integrated CSKG. We present statistics of CSKG, present initial investigations of its utility on four QA datasets, and list learned lessons.
One aspect of human commonsense reasoning is the ability to make presumptions about daily experiences, activities and social interactions with others. We propose a new commonsense reasoning benchmark where the task is to uncover commonsense presumptions implied by imprecisely stated natural language commands in the form of if-then-because statements. For example, in the command "If it snows at night then wake me up early because I don't want to be late for work" the speaker relies on commonsense reasoning of the listener to infer the implicit presumption that it must snow enough to cause traffic slowdowns. Such if-then-because commands are particularly important when users instruct conversational agents. We release a benchmark data set for this task, collected from humans and annotated with commonsense presumptions. We develop a neuro-symbolic theorem prover that extracts multi-hop reasoning chains and apply it to this problem. We further develop an interactive conversational framework that evokes commonsense knowledge from humans for completing reasoning chains.
We propose an unsupervised approach for sarcasm generation based on a non-sarcastic input sentence. Our method employs a retrieve-and-edit framework to instantiate two major characteristics of sarcasm: reversal of valence and semantic incongruity with the context which could include shared commonsense or world knowledge between the speaker and the listener. While prior works on sarcasm generation predominantly focus on context incongruity, we show that combining valence reversal and semantic incongruity based on the commonsense knowledge generates sarcasm of higher quality. Human evaluation shows that our system generates sarcasm better than human annotators 34% of the time, and better than a reinforced hybrid baseline 90% of the time.
In this paper, we present the first comprehensive categorization of essential commonsense knowledge for answering the Winograd Schema Challenge (WSC). For each of the questions, we invite annotators to first provide reasons for making correct decisions and then categorize them into six major knowledge categories. By doing so, we better understand the limitation of existing methods (i.e., what kind of knowledge cannot be effectively represented or inferred with existing methods) and shed some light on the commonsense knowledge that we need to acquire in the future for better commonsense reasoning. Moreover, to investigate whether current WSC models can understand the commonsense or they simply solve the WSC questions based on the statistical bias of the dataset, we leverage the collected reasons to develop a new task called WinoWhy, which requires models to distinguish plausible reasons from very similar but wrong reasons for all WSC questions. Experimental results prove that even though pre-trained language representation models have achieved promising progress on the original WSC dataset, they are still struggling at WinoWhy. Further experiments show that even though supervised models can achieve better performance, the performance of these models can be sensitive to the dataset distribution. WinoWhy and all codes are available at: https://github.com/HKUST-KnowComp/WinoWhy.
In this paper, we consider the recent trend of evaluating progress on reinforcement learning technology by using text-based environments and games as evaluation environments. This reliance on text brings advances in natural language processing into the ambit of these agents, with a recurring thread being the use of external knowledge to mimic and better human-level performance. We present one such instantiation of agents that use commonsense knowledge from ConceptNet to show promising performance on two text-based environments.
Commonsense knowledge acquisition is a key problem for artificial intelligence. Conventional methods of acquiring commonsense knowledge generally require laborious and costly human annotations, which are not feasible on a large scale. In this paper, we explore a practical way of mining commonsense knowledge from linguistic graphs, with the goal of transferring cheap knowledge obtained with linguistic patterns into expensive commonsense knowledge. The result is a conversion of ASER [Zhang et al., 2020], a large-scale selectional preference knowledge resource, into TransOMCS, of the same representation as ConceptNet [Liu and Singh, 2004] but two orders of magnitude larger. Experimental results demonstrate the transferability of linguistic knowledge to commonsense knowledge and the effectiveness of the proposed approach in terms of quantity, novelty, and quality. TransOMCS is publicly available at: https://github.com/HKUST-KnowComp/TransOMCS.
Commonsense reasoning has long been considered as one of the holy grails of artificial intelligence. Most of the recent progress in the field has been achieved by novel machine learning algorithms for natural language processing. However, without incorporating logical reasoning, these algorithms remain arguably shallow. With some notable exceptions, developers of practical automated logic-based reasoners have mostly avoided focusing on the problem. The paper argues that the methods and algorithms used by existing automated reasoners for classical first-order logic can be extended towards commonsense reasoning. Instead of devising new specialized logics we propose a framework of extensions to the mainstream resolution-based search methods to make these capable of performing search tasks for practical commonsense reasoning with reasonable efficiency. The proposed extensions mostly rely on operating on ordinary proof trees and are devised to handle commonsense knowledge bases containing inconsistencies, default rules, taxonomies, topics, relevance, confidence and similarity measures. We claim that machine learning is best suited for the construction of commonsense knowledge bases while the extended logic-based methods would be well-suited for actually answering queries from these knowledge bases.
We introduce Deep Adaptive Semantic Logic (DASL), a novel framework for automating the generation of deep neural networks that incorporates user-provided formal knowledge to improve learning from data. We provide formal semantics that demonstrate that our knowledge representation captures all of first order logic and that finite sampling from infinite domains converges to correct truth values. DASL's representation improves on prior neural-symbolic work by avoiding vanishing gradients, allowing deeper logical structure, and enabling richer interactions between the knowledge and learning components. We illustrate DASL through a toy problem in which we add structure to an image classification problem and demonstrate that knowledge of that structure reduces data requirements by a factor of $1000$. We then evaluate DASL on a visual relationship detection task and demonstrate that the addition of commonsense knowledge improves performance by $10.7\%$ in a data scarce setting.
Computational context understanding refers to an agent's ability to fuse disparate sources of information for decision-making and is, therefore, generally regarded as a prerequisite for sophisticated machine reasoning capabilities, such as in artificial intelligence (AI). Data-driven and knowledge-driven methods are two classical techniques in the pursuit of such machine sense-making capability. However, while data-driven methods seek to model the statistical regularities of events by making observations in the real-world, they remain difficult to interpret and they lack mechanisms for naturally incorporating external knowledge. Conversely, knowledge-driven methods, combine structured knowledge bases, perform symbolic reasoning based on axiomatic principles, and are more interpretable in their inferential processing; however, they often lack the ability to estimate the statistical salience of an inference. To combat these issues, we propose the use of hybrid AI methodology as a general framework for combining the strengths of both approaches. Specifically, we inherit the concept of neuro-symbolism as a way of using knowledge-bases to guide the learning progress of deep neural networks. We further ground our discussion in two applications of neuro-symbolism and, in both cases, show that our systems maintain interpretability while achieving comparable performance, relative to the state-of-the-art.