bayesian inference


Birth of Error Functions in Artificial Neural Networks – ML-DAWN

#artificialintelligence

In this talk we learn about what Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) are, and find out how in general, Maximum Likelihood Estimations and Bayes' Rule help us develop our error functions in ANNs, namely, cross-entropy error function! We will derive the binary-cross entropy from scratch, step by step. Below you can see the video of this talk, however, the slides and some code is available. I would highly recommend you to follow the talk through these slides. The slides are available here! The link to the post regarding the Demo is available in here!


On The Radon--Nikodym Spectral Approach With Optimal Clustering

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Problems of interpolation, classification, and clustering are considered. In the tenets of Radon--Nikodym approach $\langle f(\mathbf{x})\psi^2 \rangle / \langle\psi^2\rangle$, where the $\psi(\mathbf{x})$ is a linear function on input attributes, all the answers are obtained from a generalized eigenproblem $|f|\psi^{[i]}\rangle = \lambda^{[i]} |\psi^{[i]}\rangle$. The solution to the interpolation problem is a regular Radon-Nikodym derivative. The solution to the classification problem requires prior and posterior probabilities that are obtained using the Lebesgue quadrature[1] technique. Whereas in a Bayesian approach new observations change only outcome probabilities, in the Radon-Nikodym approach not only outcome probabilities but also the probability space $|\psi^{[i]}\rangle$ change with new observations. This is a remarkable feature of the approach: both the probabilities and the probability space are constructed from the data. The Lebesgue quadrature technique can be also applied to the optimal clustering problem. The problem is solved by constructing a Gaussian quadrature on the Lebesgue measure. A distinguishing feature of the Radon-Nikodym approach is the knowledge of the invariant group: all the answers are invariant relatively any non-degenerated linear transform of input vector $\mathbf{x}$ components. A software product implementing the algorithms of interpolation, classification, and optimal clustering is available from the authors.


Bayesian inverse regression for supervised dimension reduction with small datasets

arXiv.org Machine Learning

We consider supervised dimension reduction problems, namely to identify a low dimensional projection of the predictors $\-x$ which can retain the statistical relationship between $\-x$ and the response variable $y$. We follow the idea of the sliced inverse regression (SIR) class of methods, which is to use the statistical information of the conditional distribution $\pi(\-x|y)$ to identify the dimension reduction (DR) space and in particular we focus on the task of computing this conditional distribution. We propose a Bayesian framework to compute the conditional distribution where the likelihood function is obtained using the Gaussian process regression model. The conditional distribution $\pi(\-x|y)$ can then be obtained directly by assigning weights to the original data points. We then can perform DR by considering certain moment functions (e.g. the first moment) of the samples of the posterior distribution. With numerical examples, we demonstrate that the proposed method is especially effective for small data problems.


Stochastic Runge-Kutta Accelerates Langevin Monte Carlo and Beyond

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Sampling with Markov chain Monte Carlo methods typically amounts to discretizing some continuous-time dynamics with numerical integration. In this paper, we establish the convergence rate of sampling algorithms obtained by discretizing smooth It\^o diffusions exhibiting fast Wasserstein-$2$ contraction, based on local deviation properties of the integration scheme. In particular, we study a sampling algorithm constructed by discretizing the overdamped Langevin diffusion with the method of stochastic Runge-Kutta. For strongly convex potentials that are smooth up to a certain order, its iterates converge to the target distribution in $2$-Wasserstein distance in $\tilde{\mathcal{O}}(d\epsilon^{-2/3})$ iterations. This improves upon the best-known rate for strongly log-concave sampling based on the overdamped Langevin equation using only the gradient oracle without adjustment. In addition, we extend our analysis of stochastic Runge-Kutta methods to uniformly dissipative diffusions with possibly non-convex potentials and show they achieve better rates compared to the Euler-Maruyama scheme in terms of the dependence on tolerance $\epsilon$. Numerical studies show that these algorithms lead to better stability and lower asymptotic errors.


Introduction to Bayesian Modeling with PyMC3 - Dr. Juan Camilo Orduz

#artificialintelligence

We can also see this visually. We can verify the convergence of the chains formally using the Gelman Rubin test. Values close to 1.0 mean convergence. We can also test for correlation between samples in the chains. We are aiming for zero auto-correlation to get "random" samples from the posterior distribution. From these plots we see that the auto-correlation is not problematic.


A Bayesian Solution to the M-Bias Problem

arXiv.org Machine Learning

It is common practice in using regression type models for inferring causal effects, that inferring the correct causal relationship requires extra covariates are included or ``adjusted for''. Without performing this adjustment erroneous causal effects can be inferred. Given this phenomenon it is common practice to include as many covariates as possible, however such advice comes unstuck in the presence of M-bias. M-Bias is a problem in causal inference where the correct estimation of treatment effects requires that certain variables are not adjusted for i.e. are simply neglected from inclusion in the model. This issue caused a storm of controversy in 2009 when Rubin, Pearl and others disagreed about if it could be problematic to include additional variables in models when inferring causal effects. This paper makes two contributions to this issue. Firstly we provide a Bayesian solution to the M-Bias problem. The solution replicates Pearl's solution, but consistent with Rubin's advice we condition on all variables. Secondly the fact that we are able to offer a solution to this problem in Bayesian terms shows that it is indeed possible to represent causal relationships within the Bayesian paradigm, albeit in an extended space. We make several remarks on the similarities and differences between causal graphical models which implement the do-calculus and probabilistic graphical models which enable Bayesian statistics. We hope this work will stimulate more research on unifying Pearl's causal calculus using causal graphical models with traditional Bayesian statistics and probabilistic graphical models.


Replacing the do-calculus with Bayes rule

arXiv.org Machine Learning

The concept of causality has a controversial history. The question of whether it is possible to represent and address causal problems with probability theory, or if fundamentally new mathematics such as the do calculus is required has been hotly debated, e.g. Pearl (2001) states "the building blocks of our scientific and everyday knowledge are elementary facts such as "mud does not cause rain" and "symptoms do not cause disease" and those facts, strangely enough, cannot be expressed in the vocabulary of probability calculus". This has lead to a dichotomy between advocates of causal graphical modeling and the do calculus, and researchers applying Bayesian methods. In this paper we demonstrate that, while it is critical to explicitly model our assumptions on the impact of intervening in a system, provided we do so, estimating causal effects can be done entirely within the standard Bayesian paradigm. The invariance assumptions underlying causal graphical models can be encoded in ordinary Probabilistic graphical models, allowing causal estimation with Bayesian statistics, equivalent to the do calculus. Elucidating the connections between these approaches is a key step toward enabling the insights provided by each to be combined to solve real problems.


Langevin Monte Carlo without Smoothness

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Langevin Monte Carlo (LMC) is an iterative algorithm used to generate samples from a distribution that is known only up to a normalizing constant. The nonasymptotic dependence of its mixing time on the dimension and target accuracy is understood only in the setting of smooth (gradient-Lipschitz) log-densities, a serious limitation for applications in machine learning. In this paper, we remove this limitation, providing polynomial-time convergence guarantees for a variant of LMC in the setting of nonsmooth log-concave distributions. At a high level, our results follow by leveraging the implicit smoothing of the log-density that comes from a small Gaussian perturbation that we add to the iterates of the algorithm and controlling the bias and variance that are induced by this perturbation.


Sampling-Free Variational Inference of Bayesian Neural Networks by Variance Backpropagation

arXiv.org Machine Learning

We propose a new Bayesian Neural Net formulation that affords variational inference for which the evidence lower bound is analytically tractable subject to a tight approximation. We achieve this tractability by (i) decomposing ReLU nonlinearities into the product of an identity and a Heaviside step function, (ii) introducing a separate path that decomposes the neural net expectation from its variance. We demonstrate formally that introducing separate latent binary variables to the activations allows representing the neural network likelihood as a chain of linear operations. Performing variational inference on this construction enables a sampling-free computation of the evidence lower bound which is a more effective approximation than the widely applied Monte Carlo sampling and CLT related techniques. We evaluate the model on a range of regression and classification tasks against BNN inference alternatives, showing competitive or improved performance over the current state-of-the-art.


MOPED: Efficient priors for scalable variational inference in Bayesian deep neural networks

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Variational inference for Bayesian deep neural networks (DNNs) requires specifying priors and approximate posterior distributions for neural network weights. Specifying meaningful weight priors is a challenging problem, particularly for scaling variational inference to deeper architectures involving high dimensional weight space. We propose Bayesian MOdel Priors Extracted from Deterministic DNN (MOPED) method for stochastic variational inference to choose meaningful prior distributions over weight space using deterministic weights derived from the pretrained DNNs of equivalent architecture. We evaluate the proposed approach on multiple datasets and real-world application domains with a range of varying complex model architectures to demonstrate MOPED enables scalable variational inference for Bayesian DNNs. The proposed method achieves faster training convergence and provides reliable uncertainty quantification, without compromising on the accuracy provided by the deterministic DNNs. We also propose hybrid architectures to Bayesian DNNs where deterministic and variational layers are combined to balance computation complexity during prediction phase and while providing benefits of Bayesian inference. We will release the source code for this work.