If you are looking for an answer to the question What is Artificial Intelligence? and you only have a minute, then here's the definition the Association for the Advancement of Artificial Intelligence offers on its home page: "the scientific understanding of the mechanisms underlying thought and intelligent behavior and their embodiment in machines."
However, if you are fortunate enough to have more than a minute, then please get ready to embark upon an exciting journey exploring AI (but beware, it could last a lifetime) …
Using anti-anxiety drugs may put someone at significant risk of developing cognitive decline later in life and scientists may have finally discovered why. Researchers from the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANTSO) found that the drugs may impact the brain's microglial cells, which in turn interfere with the dendritic spines - a key part of the brain's neurons. In essence, the drugs slowly cause impact to the part of the brain that electrifies and activates cells. Millions of Americans use these drugs, and the link between them and an increased risk of cognitive decline later in life has long been known. Researchers are hopeful that their finding will open the door to a new class of drugs that have a lesser long-term impact on brain health.
We may be one step closer to an artificial intelligence (AI) tool capable of diagnosing Alzheimer's disease faster and more accurately, according to a new study conducted by Stevens Institute of Technology. "This is a real breakthrough. We're opening an exciting new field of research, and making it far easier to explain to patients why the A.I. came to the conclusion that it did, while diagnosing patients. This addresses the important question of trustability of A.I .systems in the medical field," said K.P. Subbalakshmi, the lead researcher. The new AI tool involves the analyzation of subtle linguistic patterns characteristic of people with a neurodegenerative disease.
To solve the conundrum of how to get timely medical care to people with memory loss or other impaired cognitive functioning, a new study suggests that artificial intelligence may be as accurate as clinicians in taking the first step: diagnosis. Findings from the study, which was conducted by researchers at Boston University School of Medicine, were published online Monday in the journal Nature Communications. "We're trying to leverage AI to create frameworks to mimic neurology experts," for dementia diagnosis, Vijaya B. Kolachalama, the study's principal investigator and assistant professor of medicine and computer science at Boston University, told UPI. He said his lab aims to use computer models to assist clinical practice. Kolachalama stressed that the aim of his team's work is to help reduce the workload of the busy neurology practice, not replace the expert clinician.
A simple brain scan can detect people with early-stage Alzheimer's disease, a study suggests. In what could be a breakthrough, researchers have developed an algorithm that can diagnose the condition with up to 98 per cent accuracy. The computer programme uses standard MRI technology found in most hospitals to produce a result in 12 hours. Currently it can take months to diagnose the disease on the NHS and requires a raft of memory and cognitive tests as well as scans. Researchers from Imperial College London who developed the algorithm, which was tested on more than 400 people, hope it will be rolled out on the NHS by 2025.
Tsukuba, Japan--Cognitive impairments, like those that eventually lead to Alzheimer's disease, have large social and economic impacts and often decrease people's quality of life. They're also relatively underdiagnosed, partly because their diagnosis relies on clinical tests, which aren't always easy to access. In a study published last month in JMIR Formative Research, researchers from the University of Tsukuba, University of California San Diego, and IBM Research have revealed that they could estimate global cognition in older adults from both Japan and the USA by automatically analyzing key drawing features while a drawing task was performed using a digital pen and tablet. Only about 25% of all dementia cases receive a diagnosis worldwide, and this percentage is even lower in developing countries. To add to this problem, access to cognitive screening was difficult during much of the COVID-19 pandemic.
Greece is just one example of a population where the share of older people is expanding, and with it the incidences of neurodegenerative diseases. Among these, Alzheimer's disease is the most prevalent, accounting for 70% of neurodegenerative disease cases in Greece. According to estimates published by the Alzheimer Society of Greece, 197,000 people are suffering from the disease at present. This number is expected to rise to 354,000 by 2050. Dr. Andreas Papadopoulos1, a physician and scientific coordinator at Iatropolis Medical Group, a leading diagnostic provider near Athens, Greece, explains the key role of early diagnosis: "The likelihood of developing Alzheimer's may be only 1% to 2% at age 65. But then it doubles every five years. Existing drugs cannot reverse the course of the degeneration; they can only slow it down. This is why it's crucial to make the right diagnosis in the preliminary stages--when the first mild cognitive disorder appears--and to filter out Alzheimer's patients2."
In recent years Alzheimer's disease has been on the rise throughout the world and is rarely diagnosed at an early stage when it can still be effectively controlled. Using artificial intelligence, KTU researchers conducted a study to identify whether human-computer interfaces could be adapted for people with memory impairments to recognize a visible object in front of them. Rytis Maskeliūnas, a researcher at the Department of Multimedia Engineering at Kaunas University of Technology (KTU), considers that the classification of information visible on the face is a daily human function: "While communicating, the face "tells" us the context of the conversation, especially from an emotional point of view, but can we identify visual stimuli based on brain signals?" The visual processing of the human face is complex. Information such as a person's identity or emotional state can be perceived by us, analyzing the faces.
Somerville, MA, June 1st, 2022: GNS, the leader in the use of "Virtual Patients," Causal AI and simulation technology for biopharmaceutical drug discovery and development, and the Global Alzheimer's Platform Foundation (GAP) today announced a 3-year partnership. This innovative partnership will leverage the fully de-identified dataset of rich clinico-genomic data from GAP's Bio-Hermes study to build the next generation Gemini Virtual Patient in Alzheimer's Disease (AD). The data from the groundbreaking Bio-Hermes study includes samples from more than 1,000 volunteer participants. This is the first Alzheimer's platform study to prioritize diversity in the study protocol. It is the largest AD trial of its kind evaluating biomarkers, surrogate markers, and cognitive tests.