If you are looking for an answer to the question What is Artificial Intelligence? and you only have a minute, then here's the definition the Association for the Advancement of Artificial Intelligence offers on its home page: "the scientific understanding of the mechanisms underlying thought and intelligent behavior and their embodiment in machines."
However, if you are fortunate enough to have more than a minute, then please get ready to embark upon an exciting journey exploring AI (but beware, it could last a lifetime) …
Neurological conditions such as Parkinson's and Alzheimer's could be diagnosed from simple eye scans performed by high street opticians thanks to a new NHS artificial intelligence (AI) project. Newcastle University is working on the project with medics at North East hospitals as part of a national £50 million boost to use AI in a range of health schemes. Early diagnosis in progressive neurological diseases such as Parkinson's and Alzheimer's, which affect more than one million people in the UK, is important, so speeding up the process could be crucial. Anya Hurlbert, professor of visual neuroscience at Newcastle University, is leading the Octahedron project. She said: "The retina at the back of the eye is basically an outpost of the brain and the only part of the central nervous system we can see directly from the outside. "We know that in Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease the retina is affected." Very detailed images of the retina can be captured by optical coherence tomography, or OCT scanning, which is quick and cheap and increasingly available at high street opticians. Further analysis of these scans will now be developed with the use of AI, to recognise signs of neurological disease. Prof Hurlbert said: "The aim of the project is to use NHS data to teach computers how to detect early signs of neurological disease via retinal imaging.
With no cure and no straightforward way of diagnosing the disease, scientists are exploring every avenue when it comes to detecting Alzheimer's during its early stages. One group of researchers has turned its attention to subtle differences in the language of sufferers, and have developed an AI tool they say can pick up on these as a way of potentially screening for the disease. The research was carried out at New Jersey's Stevens Institute of Technology and focuses on the way some Alzheimer's sufferers express themselves. The disease, and others that cause dementia, can impact some parts of the brain that control language, meaning that sufferers can struggle to find the right words, perhaps using the word "book" to describe a newspaper, or replacing nouns with pronouns, for example. "Language deficits occur in eight to 10 percent of individuals in the early stages of Alzheimer's disease (AD), and become more severe and numerous during its later stages," lead author of the study, K.P. Subbalakshmi explains to New Atlas.
IBM has announced on its blog page the development of an AI/cloud-based chemistry lab named RoboRXN. Its purpose is to help chemists develop new materials in a faster and more efficient way than the current trial-and-error process. For thousands of years, humans have devised new materials by combining other raw materials, quite often through the use of treatments to instigate chemical reactions. However, the trial-and-error method--an oftentimes tedious and expensive endeavor--has remained relatively unchanged over the years. As part of its announcement, IBM suggests that in the modern age, it costs on average $10 million (and takes on average 10 years) for a company to develop a useful new material.
My father, Richard Zobel, who has died aged 81, was a pioneering computer scientist at the University of Manchester, birthplace of "Baby", the world's first stored-program computer. He rode the wave of the information technology revolution, starting in the early 1960s on military flight simulators for the electronics and equipment company Sperry's – the valve analog computers they used ran so hot that he had to work in the cool of the night – and in later years recommending improvements to the distant early warning system (Dews) protecting Indian Ocean coastlines from tsunami, but it was his 40-year academic career that defined his professional life. Richard was born in Lewisham, south London, the son of Joan, a dressmaker, and Norman Zobel, a car mechanic, just before the outbreak of the second world war, and narrowly escaped early tragedy when a water tank came through the ceiling and landed on his bed during the blitz. He went to Colfe's school (then a grammar school) on a scholarship, and graduated in 1963 in electrical engineering from London University, sponsored on his sandwich course by Sperry Gyroscope, a UK arm of the US company, which had headquarters in Bracknell. He met Lesley Winks at Peggy Spencer's ballroom dancehall in Penge, and they married in 1964.
The Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO) has announced a team of researchers have processed one trillion points of genomic data in its fight to pinpoint the location of specific disease-causing genes in the human genome. Using VariantSpark, CSIRO's artificial intelligence-based library for genomic data analysis, the researchers are looking for a deeper understanding of complex diseases by analysing large genomic datasets. "Our VariantSpark platform can analyse traits, such as diseases or susceptibilities, and uncover which genes may jointly cause them," CSIRO Bioinformatics Group leader Dr Denis Bauer said. "This can provide valuable information about how the disease works on a molecular level, which can ultimately lead to better treatments." She said VariantSpark is being used to help determine what genes might be linked to cardiovascular disease, motor neurone disease, dementia, and Alzheimer's disease.
The advancement in science and medicine has helped save millions of lives up till now. The artificial intelligence is a modern technique of diagnosing pathologies with more accuracy than ever before. On 21th August, a study in the European Heart Journal published a methodology to diagnose heart disease. It suggests people pass on selfies to their respective doctors for analyzing their heart disease stage, if there is any, by using deep learning. The new deep learning has taken one-step forward in diagnosing Alzheimer's disease in its early stage.
Elon Musk, the founder of the American company Tesla and SpaceX, demonstrated how to connect a computer chip made by his new company'Neuralink' to the animal brain. Elon Musk's company, Neuralink, has developed a chip in just four years, which is being hailed as the beginning of a new era in the world of medicine and technology. Musk, however, has expressed fears in the past that artificial intelligence will overtake the human mind in the future, and has apparently acknowledged the natural faculties of the human mind. Neuralink aims to implant wireless brain-computer interfaces that include thousands of electrodes in the most complex human organ to help cure neurological conditions like Alzheimer's, dementia and spinal cord injuries and ultimately fuse humankind with artificial intelligence. "An implantable device can actually solve these problems," Musk said on a webcast Friday, mentioning ailments such as memory loss, hearing loss, depression and insomnia.
Researchers have developed software that detects Alzheimer's using artificial intelligence (AI) at 95% accuracy. Stevens Institute of Technology researchers have developed software that detects subtle changes in Alzheimer's patients' languages. Also, it can explain the diagnosis and allows physicians to re-check the findings. "This is a real breakthrough," said Stevens Institute of Technology lead researcher K.P. Subbalakshmi adding that we are "opening an exciting new field of research." Subbalakshmi is the founding director of the Stevens Institute of Artificial Intelligence as well as an electrical and computer engineering professor at the Charles V. Schaeffer School of Engineering.