If you are looking for an answer to the question What is Artificial Intelligence? and you only have a minute, then here's the definition the Association for the Advancement of Artificial Intelligence offers on its home page: "the scientific understanding of the mechanisms underlying thought and intelligent behavior and their embodiment in machines."
However, if you are fortunate enough to have more than a minute, then please get ready to embark upon an exciting journey exploring AI (but beware, it could last a lifetime) …
Doctors call this mild cognitive impairment, and it affects most people as they get older. Certain types of PET scans can reveal signs of both these conditions and can therefore be used to spot people with mild cognitive impairment who are most at risk of developing Alzheimer's. This data set consists of brain images of 182 people in their 70s with normal brains and brain images of 139 people of roughly the same age who have been diagnosed with Alzheimer's. Hongyoon and Kyong say their neural network identified those at risk of developing Alzheimer's with an accuracy of 81 percent.
Like many in Silicon Valley, technology entrepreneur Bryan Johnson sees a future in which intelligent machines can do things like drive cars on their own and anticipate our needs before we ask. What's uncommon is how Johnson wants to respond: find a way to supercharge the human brain so that we can keep up with the machines. From an unassuming office in Venice Beach, his science-fiction-meets-science start-up, Kernel, is building a tiny chip that can be implanted in the brain to help people suffering from neurological damage caused by strokes, Alzheimer's or concussions. Top neuroscientists who are building the chip -- they call it a neuroprosthetic -- hope that in the longer term, it will be able to boost intelligence, memory and other cognitive tasks. The medical device is years in the making, Johnson acknowledges, but he can afford the time.
Patient Number Two was born to first-time parents, late 20s, white. The pregnancy was normal and the birth uncomplicated. But after a few months, it became clear something was wrong. The child had ear infection after ear infection and trouble breathing at night. He was small for his age, and by his fifth birthday, still hadn't spoken.
Understanding the brain is one of the grandest challenges we have in science. By understanding the brain, we will understand how the brain creates our cognitive processes, how these processes are implemented in brain tissues, and how the brain differs from other systems we see and build. I'm a neuroscientist and have worked at modelling the brain for the past 15 years at IBM Research. I am named as an inventor on more than 80 patents. Two of my patents that issued in 2016 were: Patent # 9,504,386, "Controlling Devices Based on Physiological Measurements" and Patent # 9,384,661, "Cognitive Needs-Based Trip Planning."
A handful of startups are employing artificial intelligence technologies and big data in an attempt to diagnose dementia, particularly Alzheimer's disease. The effort could lead to better interventions and even therapeutic drugs if it becomes possible to detect cognitive decline before it really starts. The benefits to society – not to mention market potential – for the early detection of dementia and Alzheimer's disease are huge. According to the World Health Organization, there were 47.5 million people worldwide with dementia in 2015, with 7.7 million new cases each year. The total number of people with dementia is projected to reach 75.6 million in 2030 and almost triple by 2050 to 135.5 million.
Researchers in Japan are using a state-of-the-art technique to read and then amplify self-confidence in study participants. Dr. Mitsuo Kawato, director of the Computational Neuroscience Laboratories at the Advanced Telecommunications Research Institute International in Kyoto, Japan, has pioneered the process called "Decoded Neurofeedback." The technique used brain scanning to monitor and detect the occurrence of specific complex patterns of activity tied to high self-confidence states, while 17 participants performed a simple perceptual task. Whenever a pattern of high confidence was detected, participants received a small monetary reward. By doing this, researchers were able to directly boost a person's own confidence unconsciously, meaning the participants were unaware of the manipulation taking place.
Aston University has launched MESO-BRAIN, a major stem cell research project which it hopes will develop three-dimensional (3D) nanoprinting techniques that can be used to replicate the brain's neural networks. The cornerstone of the MESO-BRAIN project will be its use of pluripotent stem cells generated from adult human cells that have been turned into brain cells, which will form neural networks with specific biological architectures. Advance imaging and detection technologies developed in the project will be used to report on the activity of these networks in real time. Such technology would mark a new era of medical and neuroscience research which would see screening and testing conducted using physiologically relevant 3D living human neural networks. In the future, this could potentially be used to generate networks capable of replacing damaged areas in the brains of those suffering from Parkinson's disease, dementia or other brain trauma.
Artificial intelligence and machine learning are predicted to be part of the next industrial revolution and could help business and industry save billions of dollars by the next decade. The tech giants Google, Facebook, Apple, IBM and others are applying artificial intelligence to all sorts of data. Machine learning methods are being used in areas such as translating language almost in real time, and even to identify images of cats on the internet. So why haven't we seen artificial intelligence used to the same extent in healthcare? Radiologists still rely on visual inspection of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or X-ray scans – although IBM and others are working on this issue – and doctors have no access to AI for guiding and supporting their diagnoses.
Artificial intelligence is already transforming a range of industries but it has still to make an impact on healthcare. Scans are still largely studied by humans. Artificial intelligence and machine learning are predicted to be part of the next industrial revolution and could help business and industry save billions of dollars by the next decade. The tech giants Google, Facebook, Apple, IBM and others are applying artificial intelligence to all sorts of data. Machine learning methods are being used in areas such as translating language almost in real time, and even to identify images of cats on the internet.
More and more, 67-year-old Washington resident Lon Coleman feels like he's wandering through a fog. He walks into the living room and forgets why, or makes a phone call only to blank on whose number he dialed. An author of three books who once wrote up to five poems a day, now the lines that spring to his mind often slip away as soon as he puts pencil to paper. Sometimes the fog clears, and when his memory comes back, "it's amazing," he says. "Sometimes it doesn't, I have to admit."