Spatial Reasoning


Species Distribution Models with GIS & Machine Learning in R

@machinelearnbot

Are You an Ecologist or Conservationist Interested in Learning GIS and Machine Learning in R? Then this course is for you! I will take you on an adventure into the amazing of field Machine Learning and GIS for ecological modelling. You will learn how to implement species distribution modelling/map suitable habitats for species in R. My name is MINERVA SINGH and i am an Oxford University MPhil (Geography and Environment) graduate. I finished a PhD at Cambridge University (Tropical Ecology and Conservation). I have several years of experience in analyzing real life spatial data from different sources and producing publications for international peer reviewed journals.


Maps and the Geospatial Revolution Coursera

@machinelearnbot

About this course: Learn how advances in geospatial technology and analytical methods have changed how we do everything, and discover how to make maps and analyze geographic patterns using the latest tools. The past decade has seen an explosion of new mechanisms for understanding and using location information in widely-accessible technologies. This Geospatial Revolution has resulted in the development of consumer GPS tools, interactive web maps, and location-aware mobile devices. These radical advances are making it possible for people from all walks of life to use, collect, and understand spatial information like never before. This course brings together core concepts in cartography, geographic information systems, and spatial thinking with real-world examples to provide the fundamentals necessary to engage with Geography beyond the surface-level.


Spatial representations of self and other in the hippocampus

Science

An animal's awareness of its location in space depends on the activity of place cells in the hippocampus. How the brain encodes the spatial position of others has not yet been identified. We investigated neuronal representations of other animals' locations in the dorsal CA1 region of the hippocampus with an observational T-maze task in which one rat was required to observe another rat's trajectory to successfully retrieve a reward. Information reflecting the spatial location of both the self and the other was jointly and discretely encoded by CA1 pyramidal cells in the observer rat. A subset of CA1 pyramidal cells exhibited spatial receptive fields that were identical for the self and the other.


Geographic Information Systems (GIS) Coursera

@machinelearnbot

Knowledge of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) is an increasingly sought after skill in industries from agriculture to public health. This Specialization, offered in partnership with ArcGIS developer Esri, will teach the skills you need to successfully use GIS software in a professional setting. You will learn how to analyze your spatial data, use cartography techniques to communicate your results in maps, and collaborate with peers in GIS and GIS-dependent fields. In the final Capstone Project, you will create a professional-quality GIS portfolio piece using a combination of data identification and collection, analytical map development, and spatial analysis techniques.


Spatial and temporal patterns of mass bleaching of corals in the Anthropocene

Science

Coral bleaching occurs when stressful conditions result in the expulsion of the algal partner from the coral. Before anthropogenic climate warming, such events were relatively rare, allowing for recovery of the reef between events. Hughes et al. looked at 100 reefs globally and found that the average interval between bleaching events is now less than half what it was before. Such narrow recovery windows do not allow for full recovery. Furthermore, warming events such as El Niño are warmer than previously, as are general ocean conditions.


Benjamin J. Kuipers and Tad S. Levitt

AI Magazine

In a large-scale space, structure is at a significantly larger scale than the observations available at an instant To learn the structure of a large-scale space from observations, the observer must build a cognitive map of the environment by integrating observations over an extended period of time, inferring spatial structure from perceptions and the effects of actions The cognitive map representation of largescale space must account for a mapping, or learning structure from observations, and navigation, or creating and executing a plan to travel from one place to another Approaches to date tend to be fragile either because they don't build maps; or because they assume nonlocal observations, such as those available in preexisting maps or global coordinate systems, including active Thus, to learn the large-scale structure of the space, the traveler must necessarily build a cognitive map of the environment by integrating observations over extended periods of time, inferring spatial structure from perceptions and the effects of actions. Large-scale space and the corresponding cognitive map representation cannot be defined independent of sensory perceptions or motor actions used to observe and move about in this environment For example, a work bench observed by a laser-bearing robot is not a large-scale space, but the moon is a large-scale space relative to a land-roving robot. A microchip is not large scale relative to an optical inspection system, but a grasshopper ganglion is a large-scale space when observed by an electron microscope. Inverse trigonometric operations and scalar multiplication require ratio data, in which a numeric value is calibrated with respect to a true zero. Trigonometric operations can require only interval data on angles, where differences are well defined, but absolute angles are not required.


Qualitative Spatial Reasoning about Sketch Maps

AI Magazine

Sketch maps are an important spatial representation used in many geospatial-reasoning tasks. This article describes techniques we have developed that enable software to perform humanlike reasoning about sketch maps. We illustrate the utility of these techniques in the context of nuSketch Battlespace, a research system that has been successfully used in a variety of experiments. After an overview of the nuSketch approach and nuSketch Battlespace, we outline the representations of glyphs and sketches and the nuSketch spatial reasoning architecture. We describe the use of qualitative topology and Voronoi diagrams to construct spatial representations, and explain how these facilities are combined with analogical reasoning to provide a simple form of enemy intent hypothesis generation.


Various Views on Spatial Prepositions

AI Magazine

In this article, principles involving the intrinsic, deictic, and extrinsic use of spatial prepositions are examined from linguistic, psychological, and AI approaches. First, I define some important terms. Second, those prepositions which permit intrinsic, deictic, and extrinsic use are specified. Third, I examine how the frame of reference is determined for all three cases. Fourth, I look at ambiguities in the use of prepositions and how they can be resolved.


591

AI Magazine

We conceive of space as a completely empty, infinite, three-dimensional, isotropic, disembodied receptacle distinct from the earth or any object that might be located on the earth, one that is capable of housing not only things but also such incorporeal mathematical entities as points and infinite straight lines. Such a strange idea--especially if it were taken to describe something that exists in this world--was unthinkable before the seventeenth century; yet not even Galileo fully accepted the idea of such a world as real. For him, a "straight line" was still bound to the earth- 's surface. Not until Newton was the task of "geometrization of the world" … completed. The transformation that led to the reification of geometry, though basically one of attitude and perception rather than of empirical observation, profoundly affected the course of science.


Qualitative Spatial Reasoning

AI Magazine

Reasoning about spatial data is a key task in many applications, including geographic information systems, meteorological and fluid-flow analysis, computer-aided design, and protein structure databases. Such applications often require the identification and manipulation of qualitative spatial representations, for example, to detect whether one object will soon occlude another in a digital image or efficiently determine relationships between a proposed road and wetland regions in a geographic data set. Qualitative spatial reasoning (QSR) provides representational primitives (a spatial "vocabulary") and inference mechanisms for these tasks. This article first reviews representative work on QSR for data-poor scenarios, where the goal is to design representations that can answer qualitative queries without much numeric information. It then turns to the data-rich case, where the goal is to derive and manipulate qualitative spatial representations that efficiently and correctly abstract important spatial aspects of the underlying data for use in subsequent tasks.