Object-Oriented Architecture


Learning models of object structure

Neural Information Processing Systems

We present an approach for learning stochastic geometric models of object categories from single view images. We focus here on models expressible as a spatially contiguous assemblage of blocks. Model topologies are learned across groups of images, and one or more such topologies is linked to an object category (e.g. Fitting learned topologies to an image can be used to identify the object class, as well as detail its geometry. The latter goes beyond labeling objects, as it provides the geometric structure of particular instances.


Semantic Kernel Forests from Multiple Taxonomies

Neural Information Processing Systems

When learning features for complex visual recognition problems, labeled image exemplars alone can be insufficient. While an \emph{object taxonomy} specifying the categories' semantic relationships could bolster the learning process, not all relationships are relevant to a given visual classification task, nor does a single taxonomy capture all ties that \emph{are} relevant. In light of these issues, we propose a discriminative feature learning approach that leverages \emph{multiple} hierarchical taxonomies representing different semantic views of the object categories (e.g., for animal classes, one taxonomy could reflect their phylogenic ties, while another could reflect their habitats). For each taxonomy, we first learn a tree of semantic kernels, where each node has a Mahalanobis kernel optimized to distinguish between the classes in its children nodes. Then, using the resulting \emph{semantic kernel forest}, we learn class-specific kernel combinations to select only those relationships relevant to recognize each object class.


Why The Brain Separates Face Recognition From Object Recognition

Neural Information Processing Systems

Many studies have uncovered evidence that visual cortex contains specialized regions involved in processing faces but not other object classes. Recent electrophysiology studies of cells in several of these specialized regions revealed that at least some of these regions are organized in a hierarchical manner with viewpoint-specific cells projecting to downstream viewpoint-invariant identity-specific cells (Freiwald and Tsao 2010). A separate computational line of reasoning leads to the claim that some transformations of visual inputs that preserve viewed object identity are class-specific. In particular, the 2D images evoked by a face undergoing a 3D rotation are not produced by the same image transformation (2D) that would produce the images evoked by an object of another class undergoing the same 3D rotation. However, within the class of faces, knowledge of the image transformation evoked by 3D rotation can be reliably transferred from previously viewed faces to help identify a novel face at a new viewpoint.


Object-Oriented Dynamics Predictor

Neural Information Processing Systems

Generalization has been one of the major challenges for learning dynamics models in model-based reinforcement learning. However, previous work on action-conditioned dynamics prediction focuses on learning the pixel-level motion and thus does not generalize well to novel environments with different object layouts. In this paper, we present a novel object-oriented framework, called object-oriented dynamics predictor (OODP), which decomposes the environment into objects and predicts the dynamics of objects conditioned on both actions and object-to-object relations. It is an end-to-end neural network and can be trained in an unsupervised manner. To enable the generalization ability of dynamics learning, we design a novel CNN-based relation mechanism that is class-specific (rather than object-specific) and exploits the locality principle.


Modelling and unsupervised learning of symmetric deformable object categories

Neural Information Processing Systems

We propose a new approach to model and learn, without manual supervision, the symmetries of natural objects, such as faces or flowers, given only images as input. It is well known that objects that have a symmetric structure do not usually result in symmetric images due to articulation and perspective effects. This is often tackled by seeking the intrinsic symmetries of the underlying 3D shape, which is very difficult to do when the latter cannot be recovered reliably from data. We show that, if only raw images are given, it is possible to look instead for symmetries in the space of object deformations. We can then learn symmetries from an unstructured collection of images of the object as an extension of the recently-introduced object frame representation, modified so that object symmetries reduce to the obvious symmetry groups in the normalized space.


Zero-Shot Transfer with Deictic Object-Oriented Representation in Reinforcement Learning

Neural Information Processing Systems

Object-oriented representations in reinforcement learning have shown promise in transfer learning, with previous research introducing a propositional object-oriented framework that has provably efficient learning bounds with respect to sample complexity. However, this framework has limitations in terms of the classes of tasks it can efficiently learn. In this paper we introduce a novel deictic object-oriented framework that has provably efficient learning bounds and can solve a broader range of tasks. Additionally, we show that this framework is capable of zero-shot transfer of transition dynamics across tasks and demonstrate this empirically for the Taxi and Sokoban domains. Papers published at the Neural Information Processing Systems Conference.


Hierarchical Object Representation for Open-Ended Object Category Learning and Recognition

Neural Information Processing Systems

Most robots lack the ability to learn new objects from past experiences. To migrate a robot to a new environment one must often completely re-generate the knowledge- base that it is running with. Since in open-ended domains the set of categories to be learned is not predefined, it is not feasible to assume that one can pre-program all object categories required by robots. Therefore, autonomous robots must have the ability to continuously execute learning and recognition in a concurrent and interleaved fashion. This paper proposes an open-ended 3D object recognition system which concurrently learns both the object categories and the statistical features for encoding objects.


Deep Symmetry Networks

Neural Information Processing Systems

The chief difficulty in object recognition is that objects' classes are obscured by a large number of extraneous sources of variability, such as pose and part deformation. These sources of variation can be represented by symmetry groups, sets of composable transformations that preserve object identity. Convolutional neural networks (convnets) achieve a degree of translational invariance by computing feature maps over the translation group, but cannot handle other groups. As a result, these groups' effects have to be approximated by small translations, which often requires augmenting datasets and leads to high sample complexity. In this paper, we introduce deep symmetry networks (symnets), a generalization of convnets that forms feature maps over arbitrary symmetry groups.


Partially-Supervised Image Captioning

Neural Information Processing Systems

Image captioning models are becoming increasingly successful at describing the content of images in restricted domains. However, if these models are to function in the wild --- for example, as assistants for people with impaired vision --- a much larger number and variety of visual concepts must be understood. To address this problem, we teach image captioning models new visual concepts from labeled images and object detection datasets. Since image labels and object classes can be interpreted as partial captions, we formulate this problem as learning from partially-specified sequence data. We then propose a novel algorithm for training sequence models, such as recurrent neural networks, on partially-specified sequences which we represent using finite state automata.


3D Object Proposals for Accurate Object Class Detection

Neural Information Processing Systems

The goal of this paper is to generate high-quality 3D object proposals in the context of autonomous driving. Our method exploits stereo imagery to place proposals in the form of 3D bounding boxes. We formulate the problem as minimizing an energy function encoding object size priors, ground plane as well as several depth informed features that reason about free space, point cloud densities and distance to the ground. Our experiments show significant performance gains over existing RGB and RGB-D object proposal methods on the challenging KITTI benchmark. Combined with convolutional neural net (CNN) scoring, our approach outperforms all existing results on all three KITTI object classes.