"I think the best hope for human-level AI is logical AI, based on the formalizing of commonsense knowledge and reasoning in mathematical logic. Formalizing common sense requires extensions to mathematical logic including nonmonotonic reasoning and extensive reification, e.g., of concepts and also contexts. The reifications require appropriate reflection schemas."
– from The Future of AI—A Manifesto by John McCarthy. AI Magazine 26(4), (2005).
We introduce an unsupervised learning algorithm that combines probabilistic modeling with solver-based techniques for program synthesis. We apply our techniques to both a visual learning domain and a language learning problem, showing that our algorithm can learn many visual concepts from only a few examples and that it can recover some English inflectional morphology. Taken together, these results give both a new approach to unsupervised learning of symbolic compositional structures, and a technique for applying program synthesis tools to noisy data.
Lifted inference rules exploit symmetries for fast reasoning in statistical relational models. Computational complexity of these rules is highly dependent on the choice of the constraint language they operate on and therefore coming up with the right kind of representation is critical to the success of lifted inference. In this paper, we propose a new constraint language, called setineq, which allows subset, equality and inequality constraints, to represent substitutions over the variables in the theory. Our constraint formulation is strictly more expressive than existing representations, yet easy to operate on. We reformulate the three main lifting rules: decomposer, generalized binomial and the recently proposed single occurrence for MAP inference, to work with our constraint representation. Experiments on benchmark MLNs for exact and sampling based inference demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach over several other existing techniques.
We study the effectiveness of neural sequence models for premise selection in automated theorem proving, one of the main bottlenecks in the formalization of mathematics. We propose a two stage approach for this task that yields good results for the premise selection task on the Mizar corpus while avoiding the handengineered features of existing state-of-the-art models. To our knowledge, this is the first time deep learning has been applied to theorem proving on a large scale.
Gaifman models learn feature representations bottom up from representations of locally connected and bounded-size regions of knowledge bases (KBs). Considering local and bounded-size neighborhoods of knowledge bases renders logical inference and learning tractable, mitigates the problem of overfitting, and facilitates weight sharing. Gaifman models sample neighborhoods of knowledge bases so as to make the learned relational models more robust to missing objects and relations which is a common situation in open-world KBs. We present the core ideas of Gaifman models and apply them to large-scale relational learning problems. We also discuss the ways in which Gaifman models relate to some existing relational machine learning approaches.
Summary of paper ---------------- The paper presents a novel class of models, termed Neural Theorem Provers (NTPs), for automated knowledge base completion and automated theorem proving, using a deep neural network architecture. The recursive construction of the network is inspired by the backward chaining algorithm typically employed in logic programming (i.e., using the basic operations unification, conjunction and disjunction). Instead of directly operating on symbols, the neural network is employed to learn subsymbolic vector representations of entities and predicates, which are then exploited for assessing the similarity of symbols. Since the proposed architecture is fully differentiable, knowledge base completion can be performed using gradient descent. Thus, following the fundamental philosophy of neural-symbolic systems, the paper aims at combining the advantages of symbolic reasoning with those of subsymbolic inference.
We introduce neural networks for end-to-end differentiable proving of queries to knowledge bases by operating on dense vector representations of symbols. These neural networks are constructed recursively by taking inspiration from the backward chaining algorithm as used in Prolog. Specifically, we replace symbolic unification with a differentiable computation on vector representations of symbols using a radial basis function kernel, thereby combining symbolic reasoning with learning subsymbolic vector representations. By using gradient descent, the resulting neural network can be trained to infer facts from a given incomplete knowledge base. It learns to (i) place representations of similar symbols in close proximity in a vector space, (ii) make use of such similarities to prove queries, (iii) induce logical rules, and (iv) use provided and induced logical rules for multi-hop reasoning. We demonstrate that this architecture outperforms ComplEx, a state-of-the-art neural link prediction model, on three out of four benchmark knowledge bases while at the same time inducing interpretable function-free first-order logic rules.
We propose a deep learning-based approach to the problem of premise selection: selecting mathematical statements relevant for proving a given conjecture. We represent a higher-order logic formula as a graph that is invariant to variable renaming but still fully preserves syntactic and semantic information. We then embed the graph into a vector via a novel embedding method that preserves the information of edge ordering. Our approach achieves state-of-the-art results on the HolStep dataset, improving the classification accuracy from 83% to 90.3%.
We present a neurosymbolic framework for the lifelong learning of algorithmic tasks that mix perception and procedural reasoning. Reusing high-level concepts across domains and learning complex procedures are key challenges in lifelong learning. We show that a program synthesis approach that combines gradient descent with combinatorial search over programs can be a more effective response to these challenges than purely neural methods.