"The Crossword puzzle (CP) is a simple problem to illustrate the formalization process of a problem into a CSP. The problem is to place words of a dictionary in a given structure satisfying certain constraints. The variables are the rows and columns in the crossword, and their values are the words in a dictionary."
– Marc Torrens. An Application using the JCL: The Air Travel Planning System. Diploma Thesis, 1997, Chapter 1, Section 1.2.1.
Using Constraint Satisfaction Problems to solve AI Planning Problems. Just like AI Planning as Satisfiability, we can use an existing technique -- Constraint Satisfaction Problems to help us solve AI Planning Problems. This way we can use the existing well-developed algorithms for solving CSPs to solve our AI Planning Problems. We will first go through the general introduction of CSPs. We then continue to see how to encode AI Planning Problems into CSPs.
Autonomous robots may be able to adapt their behavior in response to changes in the environment. This is useful, for example, to efficiently handle limited resources or to respond appropriately to unexpected events such as faults. The architecture of a self-adaptive robot is complex because it should include automatic mechanisms to dynamically configure the elements that control robot behaviors. To facilitate the construction of this type of architectures, it is useful to have general solutions in the form of software tools that may be applicable to different robotic systems. This paper presents an original algorithm to dynamically configure the control architecture, which is applicable to the development of self-adaptive autonomous robots. This algorithm uses a constraint-based configuration approach to decide which basic robot behaviors should be activated in response to both reactive and deliberative events. The algorithm uses specific search heuristics and initialization procedures to achieve the performance required by robotic systems. The solution has been implemented as a software development tool called Behavior Coordinator CBC (Constraint-Based Configuration), which is based on ROS and open source, available to the general public. This tool has been successfully used for building multiple applications of autonomous aerial robots.
Multi-label classification (MC) is a standard machine learning problem in which a data point can be associated with a set of classes. A more challenging scenario is given by hierarchical multi-label classification (HMC) problems, in which every prediction must satisfy a given set of hard constraints expressing subclass relationships between classes. In this paper, we propose C-HMCNN(h), a novel approach for solving HMC problems, which, given a network h for the underlying MC problem, exploits the hierarchy information in order to produce predictions coherent with the constraints and to improve performance. Furthermore, we extend the logic used to express HMC constraints in order to be able to specify more complex relations among the classes and propose a new model CCN(h), which extends C-HMCNN(h) and is again able to satisfy and exploit the constraints to improve performance. We conduct an extensive experimental analysis showing the superior performance of both C-HMCNN(h) and CCN(h) when compared to state-of-the-art models in both the HMC and the general MC setting with hard logical constraints.
The Quadratic Unconstrained Binary Optimization (QUBO) modeling and solution framework is required for quantum and digital annealers whose goal is the optimization of a well defined metric, the objective function. However, diverse suboptimal solutions may be preferred over harder to implement strict optimal ones. In addition, the decision-maker usually has insights that are not always efficiently translated into the optimization model, such as acceptable target, interval or range values. Multi-criteria decision making is an example of involving the user in the decision process. In this paper, we present two variants of goal-seeking QUBO that minimize the deviation from the goal through a tabu-search based greedy one-flip heuristic. Experimental results illustrate the efficacy of the proposed approach over Constraint Programming for quickly finding a satisficing set of solutions.
Interpretability in machine learning (ML) is crucial for high stakes decisions and troubleshooting. In this work, we provide fundamental principles for interpretable ML, and dispel common misunderstandings that dilute the importance of this crucial topic. We also identify 10 technical challenge areas in interpretable machine learning and provide history and background on each problem. Some of these problems are classically important, and some are recent problems that have arisen in the last few years. These problems are: (1) Optimizing sparse logical models such as decision trees; (2) Optimization of scoring systems; (3) Placing constraints into generalized additive models to encourage sparsity and better interpretability; (4) Modern case-based reasoning, including neural networks and matching for causal inference; (5) Complete supervised disentanglement of neural networks; (6) Complete or even partial unsupervised disentanglement of neural networks; (7) Dimensionality reduction for data visualization; (8) Machine learning models that can incorporate physics and other generative or causal constraints; (9) Characterization of the "Rashomon set" of good models; and (10) Interpretable reinforcement learning. This survey is suitable as a starting point for statisticians and computer scientists interested in working in interpretable machine learning.
In this paper we provide results on using integer programming (IP) and constraint programming (CP) to search for sets of mutually orthogonal latin squares (MOLS). Both programming paradigms have previously successfully been used to search for MOLS, but solvers for IP and CP solvers have significantly improved in recent years and data on how modern IP and CP solvers perform on the MOLS problem is lacking. Using state-of-the-art solvers as black boxes we were able to quickly find pairs of MOLS (or prove their nonexistence) in all orders up to ten. Moreover, we improve the effectiveness of the solvers by formulating an extended symmetry breaking method as well as an improvement to the straightforward CP encoding. We also analyze the effectiveness of using CP and IP solvers to search for triples of MOLS, compare our timings to those which have been previously published, and estimate the running time of using this approach to resolve the longstanding open problem of determining the existence of a triple of MOLS of order ten.
We explore the utility of harnessing auxiliary labels (e.g., facial expression) to impose geometric structure when training embedding models for one-shot learning (e.g., for face verification). We introduce novel geometric constraints on the embedding space learned by a deep model using either manually annotated or automatically detected auxiliary labels. We contrast their performances (AUC) on four different face datasets(CK+, VGGFace-2, Tufts Face, and PubFig). Due to the additional structure encoded in the embedding space, our methods provide a higher verification accuracy (99.7, 86.2, 99.4, and 79.3% with our proposed TL+PDP+FBV loss, versus 97.5, 72.6, 93.1, and 70.5% using a standard Triplet Loss on the four datasets, respectively). Our method is implemented purely in terms of the loss function. It does not require any changes to the backbone of the embedding functions.
To identify the causes of performance problems or to predict process behavior, it is essential to have correct and complete event data. This is particularly important for distributed systems with shared resources, e.g., one case can block another case competing for the same machine, leading to inter-case dependencies in performance. However, due to a variety of reasons, real-life systems often record only a subset of all events taking place. For example, to reduce costs, the number of sensors is minimized or parts of the system are not connected. To understand and analyze the behavior of processes with shared resources, we aim to reconstruct bounds for timestamps of events that must have happened but were not recorded. We present a novel approach that decomposes system runs into entity traces of cases and resources that may need to synchronize in the presence of many-to-many relationships. Such relationships occur, for example, in warehouses where packages for N incoming orders are not handled in a single delivery but in M different deliveries. We use linear programming over entity traces to derive the timestamps of unobserved events in an efficient manner. This helps to complete the event logs and facilitates analysis. We focus on material handling systems like baggage handling systems in airports to illustrate our approach. However, the approach can be applied to other settings where recording is incomplete. The ideas have been implemented in ProM and were evaluated using both synthetic and real-life event logs.
Constraint-based recommenders support users in the identification of items (products) fitting their wishes and needs. Example domains are financial services and electronic equipment. In this paper we show how divide-and-conquer based (direct) diagnosis algorithms (no conflict detection is needed) can be exploited in constraint-based recommendation scenarios. In this context, we provide an overview of the MediaWiki-based recommendation environment WeeVis.
We propose a novel CP-Net based composition approach to qualitatively select an optimal set of consumers for an IaaS provider. The IaaS provider's and consumers' qualitative preferences are captured using CP-Nets. We propose a CP-Net composability model using the semantic congruence property of a qualitative composition. A greedy-based and a heuristic-based consumer selection approaches are proposed that effectively reduce the search space of candidate consumers in the composition. Experimental results prove the feasibility of the proposed composition approach.