Constraint-Based Reasoning

RadomeTech: Developing LogiSmart as an Indigenous Product


Also, many supplychain & logistics challenges are time, cost and resource constraint based, making ML an ideal technology to solve.

CPR for CSPs: A Probabilistic Relaxation of Constraint Propagation

Neural Information Processing Systems

This paper proposes constraint propagation relaxation (CPR), a probabilistic approach to classical constraint propagation that provides another view on the whole parametric family of survey propagation algorithms SP(ρ), ranging from belief propagation (ρ 0) to (pure) survey propagation(ρ 1). Papers published at the Neural Information Processing Systems Conference.

Maximal Cliques that Satisfy Hard Constraints with Application to Deformable Object Model Learning

Neural Information Processing Systems

We propose a novel inference framework for finding maximal cliques in a weighted graph that satisfy hard constraints. The constraints specify the graph nodes that must belong to the solution as well as mutual exclusions of graph nodes, i.e., sets of nodes that cannot belong to the same solution. The proposed inference is based on a novel particle filter algorithm with state permeations. We apply the inference framework to a challenging problem of learning part-based, deformable object models. Two core problems in the learning framework, matching of image patches and finding salient parts, are formulated as two instances of the problem of finding maximal cliques with hard constraints.

Streamlining Variational Inference for Constraint Satisfaction Problems

Neural Information Processing Systems

Several algorithms for solving constraint satisfaction problems are based on survey propagation, a variational inference scheme used to obtain approximate marginal probability estimates for variable assignments. These marginals correspond to how frequently each variable is set to true among satisfying assignments, and are used to inform branching decisions during search; however, marginal estimates obtained via survey propagation are approximate and can be self-contradictory. We introduce a more general branching strategy based on streamlining constraints, which sidestep hard assignments to variables. We show that streamlined solvers consistently outperform decimation-based solvers on random k-SAT instances for several problem sizes, shrinking the gap between empirical performance and theoretical limits of satisfiability by 16.3% on average for k 3, 4, 5, 6. Papers published at the Neural Information Processing Systems Conference.

Interpreting Neural Network Judgments via Minimal, Stable, and Symbolic Corrections

Neural Information Processing Systems

We present a new algorithm to generate minimal, stable, and symbolic corrections to an input that will cause a neural network with ReLU activations to change its output. We argue that such a correction is a useful way to provide feedback to a user when the network's output is different from a desired output. Our algorithm generates such a correction by solving a series of linear constraint satisfaction problems. The technique is evaluated on three neural network models: one predicting whether an applicant will pay a mortgage, one predicting whether a first-order theorem can be proved efficiently by a solver using certain heuristics, and the final one judging whether a drawing is an accurate rendition of a canonical drawing of a cat. Papers published at the Neural Information Processing Systems Conference.

Recurrent networks of coupled Winner-Take-All oscillators for solving constraint satisfaction problems

Neural Information Processing Systems

We present a recurrent neuronal network, modeled as a continuous-time dynamical system, that can solve constraint satisfaction problems. Discrete variables are represented by coupled Winner-Take-All (WTA) networks, and their values are encoded in localized patterns of oscillations that are learned by the recurrent weights in these networks. Constraints over the variables are encoded in the network connectivity. Although there are no sources of noise, the network can escape from local optima in its search for solutions that satisfy all constraints by modifying the effective network connectivity through oscillations. If there is no solution that satisfies all constraints, the network state changes in a pseudo-random manner and its trajectory approximates a sampling procedure that selects a variable assignment with a probability that increases with the fraction of constraints satisfied by this assignment.

Subsampled Power Iteration: a Unified Algorithm for Block Models and Planted CSP's

Neural Information Processing Systems

We present an algorithm for recovering planted solutions in two well-known models, the stochastic block model and planted constraint satisfaction problems (CSP), via a common generalization in terms of random bipartite graphs. Our algorithm matches up to a constant factor the best-known bounds for the number of edges (or constraints) needed for perfect recovery and its running time is linear in the number of edges used. The time complexity is significantly better than both spectral and SDP-based approaches.The main contribution of the algorithm is in the case of unequal sizes in the bipartition that arises in our reduction from the planted CSP. Here our algorithm succeeds at a significantly lower density than the spectral approaches, surpassing a barrier based on the spectral norm of a random matrix.Other significant features of the algorithm and analysis include (i) the critical use of power iteration with subsampling, which might be of independent interest; its analysis requires keeping track of multiple norms of an evolving solution (ii) the algorithm can be implemented statistically, i.e., with very limited access to the input distribution (iii) the algorithm is extremely simple to implement and runs in linear time, and thus is practical even for very large instances. Papers published at the Neural Information Processing Systems Conference.

Hybrid-MST: A Hybrid Active Sampling Strategy for Pairwise Preference Aggregation

Neural Information Processing Systems

In this paper we present a hybrid active sampling strategy for pairwise preference aggregation, which aims at recovering the underlying rating of the test candidates from sparse and noisy pairwise labeling. Our method employs Bayesian optimization framework and Bradley-Terry model to construct the utility function, then to obtain the Expected Information Gain (EIG) of each pair. For computational efficiency, Gaussian-Hermite quadrature is used for estimation of EIG. In this work, a hybrid active sampling strategy is proposed, either using Global Maximum (GM) EIG sampling or Minimum Spanning Tree (MST) sampling in each trial, which is determined by the test budget. The proposed method has been validated on both simulated and real-world datasets, where it shows higher preference aggregation ability than the state-of-the-art methods.

Constraints Based Convex Belief Propagation

Neural Information Processing Systems

Inference in Markov random fields subject to consistency structure is a fundamental problem that arises in many real-life applications. In order to enforce consistency, classical approaches utilize consistency potentials or encode constraints over feasible instances. Unfortunately this comes at the price of a serious computational bottleneck. In this paper we suggest to tackle consistency by incorporating constraints on beliefs. This permits derivation of a closed-form message-passing algorithm which we refer to as the Constraints Based Convex Belief Propagation (CBCBP).

Online Convex Optimization with Stochastic Constraints

Neural Information Processing Systems

This paper considers online convex optimization (OCO) with stochastic constraints, which generalizes Zinkevich's OCO over a known simple fixed set by introducing multiple stochastic functional constraints that are i.i.d. This formulation arises naturally when decisions are restricted by stochastic environments or deterministic environments with noisy observations. It also includes many important problems as special case, such as OCO with long term constraints, stochastic constrained convex optimization, and deterministic constrained convex optimization. To solve this problem, this paper proposes a new algorithm that achieves $O(\sqrt{T})$ expected regret and constraint violations and $O(\sqrt{T}\log(T))$ high probability regret and constraint violations. Experiments on a real-world data center scheduling problem further verify the performance of the new algorithm.