Constraint-Based Reasoning


Casting Geometric Constraints in Semantic Segmentation as Semi-Supervised Learning

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

We propose a simple yet effective method to learn to segment new indoor scenes from an RGB-D sequence: State-of-the-art methods trained on one dataset, even as large as SUNRGB-D dataset, can perform poorly when applied to images that are not part of the dataset, because of the dataset bias, a common phenomenon in computer vision. To make semantic segmentation more useful in practice, we learn to segment new indoor scenes from sequences without manual annotations by exploiting geometric constraints and readily available training data from SUNRGB-D. As a result, we can then robustly segment new images of these scenes from color information only. To efficiently exploit geometric constraints for our purpose, we propose to cast these constraints as semi-supervised terms, which enforce the fact that the same class should be predicted for the projections of the same 3D location in different images. We show that this approach results in a simple yet very powerful method, which can annotate sequences of ScanNet and our own sequences using only annotations from SUNRGB-D.


How To Improve Supply Chains With Machine Learning: 10 Proven Ways

#artificialintelligence

Bottom line: Enterprises are attaining double-digit improvements in forecast error rates, demand planning productivity, cost reductions and on-time shipments using machine learning today, revolutionizing supply chain management in the process. Machine learning algorithms and the models they're based on excel at finding anomalies, patterns and predictive insights in large data sets. Many supply chain challenges are time, cost and resource constraint-based, making machine learning an ideal technology to solve them. From Amazon's Kiva robotics relying on machine learning to improve accuracy, speed and scale to DHL relying on AI and machine learning to power their Predictive Network Management system that analyzes 58 different parameters of internal data to identify the top factors influencing shipment delays, machine learning is defining the next generation of supply chain management. Gartner predicts that by 2020, 95% of Supply Chain Planning (SCP) vendors will be relying on supervised and unsupervised machine learning in their solutions.


Preference Reasoning in Matching Procedures: Application to the Admission Post-Baccalaureat Platform

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Because preferences naturally arise and play an important role in many real-life decisions, they are at the backbone of various fields. In particular preferences are increasingly used in almost all matching procedures-based applications. In this work we highlight the benefit of using AI insights on preferences in a large scale application, namely the French Admission Post-Baccalaureat Platform (APB). Each year APB allocates hundreds of thousands first year applicants to universities. This is done automatically by matching applicants preferences to university seats. In practice, APB can be unable to distinguish between applicants which leads to the introduction of random selection. This has created frustration in the French public since randomness, even used as a last mean does not fare well with the republican egalitarian principle. In this work, we provide a solution to this problem. We take advantage of recent AI Preferences Theory results to show how to enhance APB in order to improve expressiveness of applicants preferences and reduce their exposure to random decisions.


Multi-agent Path Finding with Continuous Time Viewed Through Satisfiability Modulo Theories (SMT)

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

This paper addresses a variant of multi-agent path finding (MAPF) in continuous space and time. We present a new solving approach based on satisfiability modulo theories (SMT) to obtain makespan optimal solutions. The standard MAPF is a task of navigating agents in an undirected graph from given starting vertices to given goal vertices so that agents do not collide with each other in vertices of the graph. In the continuous version (MAPF$^\mathcal{R}$) agents move in an $n$-dimensional Euclidean space along straight lines that interconnect predefined positions. For simplicity, we work with circular omni-directional agents having constant velocities in the 2D plane. As agents can have different sizes and move smoothly along lines, a non-colliding movement along certain lines with small agents can result in a collision if the same movement is performed with larger agents. Our SMT-based approach for MAPF$^\mathcal{R}$ called SMT-CBS$^\mathcal{R}$ reformulates the Conflict-based Search (CBS) algorithm in terms of SMT concepts. We suggest lazy generation of decision variables and constraints. Each time a new conflict is discovered, the underlying encoding is extended with new variables and constraints to eliminate the conflict. We compared SMT-CBS$^\mathcal{R}$ and adaptations of CBS for the continuous variant of MAPF experimentally.


A multiple criteria methodology for prioritizing and selecting portfolios of urban projects

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

This paper presents an integrated methodology supporting decisions in urban planning. In particular, it deals with the prioritization and the selection of a portfolio of projects related to buildings of some values for the cultural heritage in cities. More precisely, our methodology has been validated to the historical center of Naples, Italy. Each project is assessed on the basis of a set of both quantitative and qualitative criteria with the purpose to determine their level of priority for further selection. This step was performed through the application of the Electre Tri-nC method which is a multiple criteria outranking based method for ordinal classification (or sorting) problems and allows to assign a priority level to each project as an analytical "recommendation" tool. To identify the efficient portfolios and to support the selection of the most adequate set of projects to activate, a set of resources (namely budgetary constraints) as well as some logical constraints related to urban policy requirements have to be taken into consideration together with the priority of projects in a portfolio analysis model. The process has been conducted by means of the interaction between analysts, municipality representative and experts. The proposed methodology is generic enough to be applied to other territorial or urban planning problems. We strongly believe that, given the increasing interest of historical cities to restore their cultural heritage, the integrated multiple criteria decision aiding analytical tool proposed in this paper has significant potential to be used in the future.


Extracting Frequent Gradual Patterns Using Constraints Modeling

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

In this paper, we propose a constraint-based modeling approach for the problem of discovering frequent gradual patterns in a numerical dataset. This SAT-based declarative approach offers an additional possibility to benefit from the recent progress in satisfiability testing and to exploit the efficiency of modern SAT solvers for enumerating all frequent gradual patterns in a numerical dataset. Our approach can easily be extended with extra constraints, such as temporal constraints in order to extract more specific patterns in a broad range of gradual patterns mining applications. We show the practical feasibility of our SAT model by running experiments on two real world datasets.


Generating Difficult SAT Instances by Preventing Triangles

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

When creating benchmarks for SAT solvers, we need SAT instances that are easy to build but hard to solve. A recent development in the search for such methods has led to the Balanced SAT algorithm, which can create k-SAT instances with m clauses of high difficulty, for arbitrary k and m. In this paper we introduce the No-Triangle SAT algorithm, a SAT instance generator based on the cluster coefficient graph statistic. We empirically compare the two algorithms by fixing the arity and the number of variables, but varying the number of clauses. The hardest instances that we find are produced by No-Triangle SAT. Furthermore, difficult instances from No-Triangle SAT have a different number of clauses than difficult instances from Balanced SAT, potentially allowing a combination of the two methods to find hard SAT instances for a larger array of parameters.


Distributed Online Convex Optimization with Time-Varying Coupled Inequality Constraints

arXiv.org Machine Learning

This paper considers distributed online optimization with time-varying coupled inequality constraints. The global objective function is composed of local convex cost and regularization functions and the coupled constraint function is the sum of local convex constraint functions. A distributed online primal-dual dynamic mirror descent algorithm is proposed to solve this problem, where the local cost, regularization, and constraint functions are held privately and revealed only after each time slot. We first derive regret and cumulative constraint violation bounds for the algorithm and show how they depend on the stepsize sequences, the accumulated dynamic variation of the comparator sequence, the number of agents, and the network connectivity. As a result, under some natural decreasing stepsize sequences, we prove that the algorithm achieves sublinear dynamic regret and cumulative constraint violation if the accumulated dynamic variation of the optimal sequence also grows sublinearly. We also prove that the algorithm achieves sublinear static regret and cumulative constraint violation under mild conditions. In addition, smaller bounds on the static regret are achieved when the objective functions are strongly convex. Finally, numerical simulations are provided to illustrate the effectiveness of the theoretical results.


PDP: A General Neural Framework for Learning Constraint Satisfaction Solvers

arXiv.org Machine Learning

There have been recent efforts for incorporating Graph Neural Network models for learning full-stack solvers for constraint satisfaction problems (CSP) and particularly Boolean satisfiability (SAT). Despite the unique representational power of these neural embedding models, it is not clear how the search strategy in the learned models actually works. On the other hand, by fixing the search strategy (e.g. greedy search), we would effectively deprive the neural models of learning better strategies than those given. In this paper, we propose a generic neural framework for learning CSP solvers that can be described in terms of probabilistic inference and yet learn search strategies beyond greedy search. Our framework is based on the idea of propagation, decimation and prediction (and hence the name PDP) in graphical models, and can be trained directly toward solving CSP in a fully unsupervised manner via energy minimization, as shown in the paper. Our experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of our framework for SAT solving compared to both neural and the state-of-the-art baselines.


Local Distance Restricted Bribery in Voting

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Studying complexity of various bribery problems has been one of the main research focus in computational social choice. In all the models of bribery studied so far, the briber has to pay every voter some amount of money depending on what the briber wants the voter to report and the briber has some budget at her disposal. Although these models successfully capture many real world applications, in many other scenarios, the voters may be unwilling to deviate too much from their true preferences. In this paper, we study the computational complexity of the problem of finding a preference profile which is as close to the true preference profile as possible and still achieves the briber's goal subject to budget constraints. We call this problem Optimal Bribery. We consider three important measures of distances, namely, swap distance, footrule distance, and maximum displacement distance, and resolve the complexity of the optimal bribery problem for many common voting rules. We show that the problem is polynomial time solvable for the plurality and veto voting rules for all the three measures of distance. On the other hand, we prove that the problem is NP-complete for a class of scoring rules which includes the Borda voting rule, maximin, Copeland$^\alpha$ for any $\alpha\in[0,1]$, and Bucklin voting rules for all the three measures of distance even when the distance allowed per voter is $1$ for the swap and maximum displacement distances and $2$ for the footrule distance even without the budget constraints (which corresponds to having an infinite budget). For the $k$-approval voting rule for any constant $k>1$ and the simplified Bucklin voting rule, we show that the problem is NP-complete for the swap distance even when the distance allowed is $2$ and for the footrule distance even when the distance allowed is $4$ even without the budget constraints.