Constraint-Based Reasoning


Exploring Properties of Icosoku by Constraint Satisfaction Approach

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Icosoku is a challenging and interesting puzzle that exhibits highly symmetrical and combinatorial nature. In this paper, we pose the questions derived from the puzzle, but with more difficulty and generality. In addition, we also present a constraint programming model for the proposed questions, which can provide the answers to our first two questions. The purpose of this paper is to share our preliminary result and problems to encourage researchers in both group theory and constraint communities to consider this topic further.


The Regularization of Small Sub-Constraint Satisfaction Problems

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

This paper describes a new approach on optimization of constraint satisfaction problems (CSPs) by means of substituting sub-CSPs with locally consistent regular membership constraints. The purpose of this approach is to reduce the number of fails in the resolution process, to improve the inferences made during search by the constraint solver by strengthening constraint propagation, and to maintain the level of propagation while reducing the cost of propagating the constraints. Our experimental results show improvements in terms of the resolution speed compared to the original CSPs and a competitiveness to the recent tabulation approach. Besides, our approach can be realized in a preprocessing step, and therefore wouldn't collide with redundancy constraints or parallel computing if implemented.


Applying Constraint Logic Programming to SQL Semantic Analysis

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

This paper proposes the use of Constraint Logic Programming (CLP) to model SQL queries in a data-independent abstract layer by focusing on some semantic properties for signalling possible errors in such queries. First, we define a translation from SQL to Datalog, and from Datalog to CLP, so that solving this CLP program will give information about inconsistency, tautology, and possible simplifications. We use different constraint domains which are mapped to SQL types, and propose them to cooperate for improving accuracy. Our approach leverages a deductive system that includes SQL and Datalog, and we present an implementation in this system which is currently being tested in classroom, showing its advantages and differences with respect to other approaches, as well as some performance data. This paper is under consideration for acceptance in TPLP .


Intel Debuts Pohoiki Beach, Its 8M Neuron Neuromorphic Development System

#artificialintelligence

Neuromorphic computing has received less fanfare of late than quantum computing whose mystery has captured public attention and which seems to have generated more efforts (academic, government, and commercial) but whose payoff also seems more distant. Intel's introduction this week of Pohoiki Beach – an 8-million-neuron, neuromorphic system using 64 Loihi research chips – brings some (needed) attention back to neuromorphic technology. The newest system will be available to Intel's roughly 60 neuromorphic ecosystem partners and represents a significant scaling up of its development platform with more to come; Intel reportedly plans to introduce a 768-chip, 100-million-neuron system (Pohoiki Springs) near the end of 2019. "Researchers can now efficiently scale up novel neural-inspired algorithms – such as sparse coding, simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM), and path planning – that can learn and adapt based on data inputs. Pohoiki Beach represents a major milestone in Intel's neuromorphic research, laying the foundation for Intel Labs to scale the architecture to 100 million neurons later this year," according to the official announcement.


Discrete Object Generation with Reversible Inductive Construction

arXiv.org Machine Learning

The success of generative modeling in continuous domains has led to a surge of interest in generating discrete data such as molecules, source code, and graphs. However, construction histories for these discrete objects are typically not unique and so generative models must reason about intractably large spaces in order to learn. Additionally, structured discrete domains are often characterized by strict constraints on what constitutes a valid object and generative models must respect these requirements in order to produce useful novel samples. Here, we present a generative model for discrete objects employing a Markov chain where transitions are restricted to a set of local operations that preserve validity. Building off of generative interpretations of denoising autoencoders, the Markov chain alternates between producing 1) a sequence of corrupted objects that are valid but not from the data distribution, and 2) a learned reconstruction distribution that attempts to fix the corruptions while also preserving validity. This approach constrains the generative model to only produce valid objects, requires the learner to only discover local modifications to the objects, and avoids marginalization over an unknown and potentially large space of construction histories. We evaluate the proposed approach on two highly structured discrete domains, molecules and Laman graphs, and find that it compares favorably to alternative methods at capturing distributional statistics for a host of semantically relevant metrics.


A global constraint for the capacitated single-item lot-sizing problem

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

The goal of this paper is to set a constraint programming framework to solve lot-sizing problems. More specifically, we consider a single-item lot-sizing problem with time-varying lower and upper bounds for production and inventory. The cost structure includes time-varying holding costs, unitary production costs and setup costs. We establish a new lower bound for this problem by using a subtle time decomposition. We formulate this NP-hard problem as a global constraint and show that bound consistency can be achieved in pseudo-polynomial time and when not including the costs, in polynomial time. We develop filtering rules based on existing dynamic programming algorithms, exploiting the above mentioned time decomposition for difficult instances. In a numerical study, we compare several formulations of the problem: mixed integer linear programming, constraint programming and dynamic programming. We show that our global constraint is able to find solutions, unlike the decomposed constraint programming model and that constraint programming can be competitive, in particular when adding combinatorial side constraints.


Ludii and XCSP: Playing and Solving Logic Puzzles

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Many of the famous single-player games, commonly called puzzles, can be shown to be NP-Complete. Indeed, this class of complexity contains hundreds of puzzles, since people particularly appreciate completing an intractable puzzle, such as Sudoku, but also enjoy the ability to check their solution easily once it's done. For this reason, using constraint programming is naturally suited to solve them. In this paper, we focus on logic puzzles described in the Ludii general game system and we propose using the XCSP formalism in order to solve them with any CSP solver.


Effective problem solving using SAT solvers

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

In this article we demonstrate how to solve a variety of problems and puzzles using the built-in SAT solver of the computer algebra system Maple. Once the problems have been encoded into Boolean logic, solutions can be found (or shown to not exist) automatically, without the need to implement any search algorithm. In particular, we describe how to solve the $n$-queens problem, how to generate and solve Sudoku puzzles, how to solve logic puzzles like the Einstein riddle, how to solve the 15-puzzle, how to solve the maximum clique problem, and finding Graeco-Latin squares.


Two-step Constructive Approaches for Dungeon Generation

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

This paper presents a two-step generative approach for creating While research on level generation focuses on level generators dungeons in the rogue-like puzzle game MiniDungeons 2. Generation based on stochastic search [14], constraint solving [11, 12], or machine is split into two steps, initially producing the architectural learning [13], level generation in published games is mostly layout of the level as its walls and floor tiles, and then furnishing it carried out via constructive algorithms. Unlike generate-and-test with game objects representing the player's start and goal position, processes, constructive generators do not evaluate and regenerate challenges and rewards. Three layout creators and three furnishers output; for example, cellular automata and grammars can be used are introduced in this paper, which can be combined in different for constructive generation, as well as more freeform approaches ways in the two-step generative process for producing diverse dungeons such as diggers [10]. Such generators are computationally lightweight levels. Layout creators generate the floors and walls of a level, since they do not evaluate their generated output. This while furnishers populate it with monsters, traps, and treasures.


Deep Reasoning Networks: Thinking Fast and Slow

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

We introduce Deep Reasoning Networks (DRNets), an end-to-end framework that combines deep learning with reasoning for solving complex tasks, typically in an unsupervised or weakly-supervised setting. DRNets exploit problem structure and prior knowledge by tightly combining logic and constraint reasoning with stochastic-gradient-based neural network optimization. We illustrate the power of DRNets on de-mixing overlapping hand-written Sudokus (Multi-MNIST-Sudoku) and on a substantially more complex task in scientific discovery that concerns inferring crystal structures of materials from X-ray diffraction data under thermodynamic rules (Crystal-Structure-Phase-Mapping). At a high level, DRNets encode a structured latent space of the input data, which is constrained to adhere to prior knowledge by a reasoning module. The structured latent encoding is used by a generative decoder to generate the targeted output. Finally, an overall objective combines responses from the generative decoder (thinking fast) and the reasoning module (thinking slow), which is optimized using constraint-aware stochastic gradient descent. We show how to encode different tasks as DRNets and demonstrate DRNets' effectiveness with detailed experiments: DRNets significantly outperform the state of the art and experts' capabilities on Crystal-Structure-Phase-Mapping, recovering more precise and physically meaningful crystal structures. On Multi-MNIST-Sudoku, DRNets perfectly recovered the mixed Sudokus' digits, with 100% digit accuracy, outperforming the supervised state-of-the-art MNIST de-mixing models. Finally, as a proof of concept, we also show how DRNets can solve standard combinatorial problems -- 9-by-9 Sudoku puzzles and Boolean satisfiability problems (SAT), outperforming other specialized deep learning models. DRNets are general and can be adapted and expanded to tackle other tasks.