"The Crossword puzzle (CP) is a simple problem to illustrate the formalization process of a problem into a CSP. The problem is to place words of a dictionary in a given structure satisfying certain constraints. The variables are the rows and columns in the crossword, and their values are the words in a dictionary."
– Marc Torrens. An Application using the JCL: The Air Travel Planning System. Diploma Thesis, 1997, Chapter 1, Section 1.2.1.
"History is called the mother of all subjects", said Marc Bloch. So, let's talk about how the famous Sudoku even came into existence. The story dates back to the late 19th Century and it originated from France. Le Siecle, a French daily published a 9x9 puzzle that required arithmetic calculations to solve rather than logic and had double-digit numbers instead of 1-to-9 with similar game properties like Sudoku where the digits across rows, columns, and diagonals if added, will result in the same number. In 1979 a retired architect and puzzler named Howard Garns is believed to be the creator behind the modern Sudoku which was first published by Dell Magazines in the name of Number Place.
DisCSP (Distributed Constraint Satisfaction Problem) is a general framework for solving distributed problems arising in Distributed Artificial Intelligence. A wide variety of problems in artificial intelligence are solved using the constraint satisfaction problem paradigm. However, there are several applications in multi-agent coordination that are of a distributed nature. In this type of application, the knowledge about the problem, that is, variables and constraints, may be logically or geographically distributed among physical distributed agents. This distribution is mainly due to privacy and/or security requirements.
Personally, my biggest initial stumbling block was this: The math used to implement regularization does not correspond to pictures commonly used to explain regularization. Take a look at the oft-copied picture (shown below left) from page 71 of ESL in the section on "Shrinkage Methods." Students see this multiple times in their careers but have trouble mapping that to the relatively straightforward mathematics used to regularize linear model training. The simple reason is that that illustration shows how we regularize models conceptually, with hard constraints, not how we actually implement regularization, with soft constraints! Regularization conceptually uses a hard constraint to prevent coefficients from getting too large (the cyan circles from the ESL picture).
Usually, you pop up in an exhibition, coming from vivid streets to the Silent Hall of art. The exhibition pops up where you are, suddenly, amidst your next Zoom call, or while you are checking your emails. And you are exposed to it. In these crazy pandemic times, they found a perfect way to present art, without put the visitors in danger to be Corona'ed: Plug-In. You install a plug-in to your browser, and every hour another artwork overfloods your PC windows.
In an attempt to automate industrial designing, researchers from Princeton University and Columbia University introduced a large dataset of 15 million two-dimensional real-world computer-aided designs -- SketchGraphs. Along with that to facilitate research in ML-aided design, they also launched an open-source data processing pipeline. Introduced during the International Conference on Machine Learning, SketchGraphs is aimed to train the artificial intelligence machine with this large dataset, in order to expertise it to assist humans in creating CAD models. In a recent paper, researchers revealed that each of the CAD sketches is represented with a geometric constraint graph and the understanding of the line and shape sequence in which the design was initially created. This will enable the predictions of what is going to be designed next.
Parametric computer-aided design (CAD) is the dominant paradigm in mechanical engineering for physical design. Distinguished by relational geometry, parametric CAD models begin as two-dimensional sketches consisting of geometric primitives (e.g., line segments, arcs) and explicit constraints between them (e.g., coincidence, perpendicularity) that form the basis for three-dimensional construction operations. Training machine learning models to reason about and synthesize parametric CAD designs has the potential to reduce design time and enable new design workflows. Additionally, parametric CAD designs can be viewed as instances of constraint programming and they offer a well-scoped test bed for exploring ideas in program synthesis and induction. To facilitate this research, we introduce SketchGraphs, a collection of 15 million sketches extracted from real-world CAD models coupled with an open-source data processing pipeline.
What do self-driving cars, face recognition, web search, industrial robots, missile guidance, and tumor detection have in common? They are all complex real world problems being solved with applications of intelligence (AI). This course will provide a broad understanding of the basic techniques for building intelligent computer systems and an understanding of how AI is applied to problems. You will learn about the history of AI, intelligent agents, state-space problem representations, uninformed and heuristic search, game playing, logical agents, and constraint satisfaction problems. Hands on experience will be gained by building a basic search agent.
During the virtually held Robotics: Science and Systems 2020 conference this week, scientists affiliated with the National University of Singapore (NUS) presented research that combines robotic vision and touch sensing with Intel-designed neuromorphic processors. The researchers claim the "electronic skin" -- dubbed Asynchronous Coded Electronic Skin (ACES) -- can detect touches more than 1,000 times faster than the human nervous system and identify the shape, texture, and hardness of objects within 10 milliseconds. At the same time, ACES is designed to be modular and highly robust to damage, ensuring it can continue functioning as long as at least one sensor remains. The human sense of touch is fine-grained enough to distinguish between surfaces that differ by only a single layer of molecules, yet the majority of today's autonomous robots operate solely via visual, spatial, and inertial processing techniques. Bringing humanlike touch to machines could significantly improve their utility and even lead to new use cases.
We consider three important challenges in conference peer review: (i) reviewers maliciously attempting to get assigned to certain papers to provide positive reviews, possibly as part of quid-pro-quo arrangements with the authors; (ii) "torpedo reviewing," where reviewers deliberately attempt to get assigned to certain papers that they dislike in order to reject them; (iii) reviewer de-anonymization on release of the similarities and the reviewer-assignment code. On the conceptual front, we identify connections between these three problems and present a framework that brings all these challenges under a common umbrella. We then present a (randomized) algorithm for reviewer assignment that can optimally solve the reviewer-assignment problem under any given constraints on the probability of assignment for any reviewer-paper pair. We further consider the problem of restricting the joint probability that certain suspect pairs of reviewers are assigned to certain papers, and show that this problem is NP-hard for arbitrary constraints on these joint probabilities but efficiently solvable for a practical special case. Finally, we experimentally evaluate our algorithms on datasets from past conferences, where we observe that they can limit the chance that any malicious reviewer gets assigned to their desired paper to 50% while producing assignments with over 90% of the total optimal similarity. Our algorithms still achieve this similarity while also preventing reviewers with close associations from being assigned to the same paper.
Constraint Optimization Problems (COP) are often considered without sufficient knowledge on the boundaries of the objective variable to optimize. When available, tight boundaries are helpful to prune the search space or estimate problem characteristics. Finding close boundaries, that correctly under- and overestimate the optimum, is almost impossible without actually solving the COP. This paper introduces Bion, a novel approach for boundary estimation by learning from previously solved instances of the COP. Based on supervised machine learning, Bion is problem-specific and solver-independent and can be applied to any COP which is repeatedly solved with different data inputs. An experimental evaluation over seven realistic COPs shows that an estimation model can be trained to prune the objective variables' domains by over 80%. By evaluating the estimated boundaries with various COP solvers, we find that Bion improves the solving process for some problems, although the effect of closer bounds is generally problem-dependent.