Knowledge that Everyone Knows. "People do not walk on their heads." The assertion comes about 900 statements deep into the 527,308 items that comprise the Open Mind common sense database. It's after "Laws are the rules of society" and before "The sky is blue during the day." This collection of mundane facts, which would take more than 20,000 pages to print out, consists entirely of statements so unremarkable they are barely worth stating. Most of us would correctly dismiss them as common sense.
– from D.C. Denison, Guess who's smarter. Boston Globe Online (page hosted at MIT), May 26, 2003.
Artificial intelligence programs are extremely good at finding subtle patterns in enormous amounts of data, but don't understand the meaning of anything. Whether you are searching the Internet on Google, browsing your news feed on Facebook, or finding the quickest route on a traffic app like Waze, an algorithm is at the root of it. Algorithms have permeated our daily lives; they help to simplify, distill, process, and provide insights from massive amounts of data. According to Ernest Davis, a professor of computer science at New York University's Courant Institute of Mathematical Sciences whose research centers on the automation of common-sense reasoning, the technologies that currently exist for artificial intelligence (AI) programs are extremely good at finding subtle patterns in enormous amounts of data. "One way or another," he says, "that is how they work."
The task of Visual Commonsense Reasoning is extremely challenging in the sense that the model has to not only be able to answer a question given an image, but also be able to learn to reason. The baselines introduced in this task are quite limiting because two networks are trained for predicting answers and rationales separately. Question and image is used as input to train answer prediction network while question, image and correct answer are used as input in the rationale prediction network. As rationale is conditioned on the correct answer, it is based on the assumption that we can solve Visual Question Answering task without any error - which is over ambitious. Moreover, such an approach makes both answer and rationale prediction two completely independent VQA tasks rendering cognition task meaningless. In this paper, we seek to address these issues by proposing an end-to-end trainable model which considers both answers and their reasons jointly. Specifically, we first predict the answer for the question and then use the chosen answer to predict the rationale. However, a trivial design of such a model becomes non-differentiable which makes it difficult to train. We solve this issue by proposing four approaches - softmax, gumbel-softmax, reinforcement learning based sampling and direct cross entropy against all pairs of answers and rationales. We demonstrate through experiments that our model performs competitively against current state-of-the-art. We conclude with an analysis of presented approaches and discuss avenues for further work.
Automatic KB completion for commonsense knowledge graphs (e.g., ATOMIC and ConceptNet) poses unique challenges compared to the much studied conventional knowledge bases (e.g., Freebase). Commonsense knowledge graphs use free-form text to represent nodes, resulting in orders of magnitude more nodes compared to conventional KBs (18x more nodes in ATOMIC compared to Freebase (FB15K-237)). Importantly, this implies significantly sparser graph structures - a major challenge for existing KB completion methods that assume densely connected graphs over a relatively smaller set of nodes. In this paper, we present novel KB completion models that can address these challenges by exploiting the structural and semantic context of nodes. Specifically, we investigate two key ideas: (1) learning from local graph structure, using graph convolutional networks and automatic graph densification and (2) transfer learning from pre-trained language models to knowledge graphs for enhanced contextual representation of knowledge. We describe our method to incorporate information from both these sources in a joint model and provide the first empirical results for KB completion on ATOMIC and evaluation with ranking metrics on ConceptNet. Our results demonstrate the effectiveness of language model representations in boosting link prediction performance and the advantages of learning from local graph structure (+1.5 points in MRR for ConceptNet) when training on subgraphs for computational efficiency. Further analysis on model predictions shines light on the types of commonsense knowledge that language models capture well.
What is meant by AI? What is the nature of intelligence? What is transhumanism and common sense reasoning? These are some of the questions which the book covers. The relationship between man and machine has fascinated people eversince the writing of Frankenstein, where we are warned about the unintended consequences of the use and development of technology. While scrutinizing AI, one profound question emerges as a natural result: what makes us truly human?
Recently, pretrained language models (e.g., BERT) have achieved great success on many downstream natural language understanding tasks and exhibit a certain level of commonsense reasoning ability. However, their performance on commonsense tasks is still far from that of humans. As a preliminary attempt, we propose a simple yet effective method to teach pretrained models with commonsense reasoning by leveraging the structured knowledge in ConceptNet, the largest commonsense knowledge base (KB). Specifically, the structured knowledge in KB allows us to construct various logical forms, and then generate multiple-choice questions requiring commonsense logical reasoning. Experimental results demonstrate that, when refined on these training examples, the pretrained models consistently improve their performance on tasks that require commonsense reasoning, especially in the few-shot learning setting. Besides, we also perform analysis to understand which logical relations are more relevant to commonsense reasoning.
Inferring commonsense knowledge is a key challenge in natural language processing, but due to the sparsity of training data, previous work has shown that supervised methods for commonsense knowledge mining underperform when evaluated on novel data. In this work, we develop a method for generating commonsense knowledge using a large, pre-trained bidirectional language model. By transforming relational triples into masked sentences, we can use this model to rank a triple's validity by the estimated pointwise mutual information between the two entities. Since we do not update the weights of the bidirectional model, our approach is not biased by the coverage of any one commonsense knowledge base. Though this method performs worse on a test set than models explicitly trained on a corresponding training set, it outperforms these methods when mining commonsense knowledge from new sources, suggesting that unsupervised techniques may generalize better than current supervised approaches.
Stories generated with neural language models have shown promise in grammatical and stylistic consistency. However, the generated stories are still lacking in common sense reasoning, e.g., they often contain sentences deprived of world knowledge. W e propose a simple multi-task learning scheme to achieve quantitatively better common sense reasoning in language models by leveraging auxiliary training signals from datasets designed to provide common sense grounding. When combined with our two-stage fine-tuning pipeline, our method achieves improved common sense reasoning and state-of-the-art perplexity on the Writing-Prompts ( Fan et al., 2018) story generation dataset.
The Winograd Schema Challenge (WSC) is a natural language understanding task proposed as an alternative to the Turing test in 2011. In this work we attempt to solve WSC problems by reasoning with additional knowledge. By using an approach built on top of graph-subgraph isomorphism encoded using Answer Set Programming (ASP) we were able to handle 240 out of 291 WSC problems. The ASP encoding allows us to add additional constraints in an elaboration tolerant manner. In the process we present a graph based representation of WSC problems as well as relevant commonsense knowledge. This paper is under consideration for acceptance in TPLP.
Team up with the AllenAI artificial intelligence to either draw or guess a set of unique phrases using a limited set of icons to compose your drawing. AllenAI combines advanced computer vision, language understanding, and common sense reasoning to make guesses based on your drawings and to produce its own complex scenes for you to try to guess.