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### Universities and Tech Giants Back National Cloud Computing Project

The national research cloud would address a problem that is a byproduct of impressive progress in recent years. The striking gains made in tasks like language understanding, computer vision, game playing and common-sense reasoning have been attained thanks to a branch of A.I. called deep learning. That technology increasingly requires immense computing firepower. A report last year from the Allen Institute for Artificial Intelligence, working with data from OpenAI, another artificial intelligence lab, observed that the volume of calculations needed to be a leader in advanced A.I. had soared an estimated 300,000 times in the previous six years. The cost of training deep learning models, cycling endlessly through troves of data, can be millions of dollars.

### Seventy years of highs and lows in the history of machine learning

Cold War concerns U.S. government agencies like the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) fund AI research at universities such as MIT, hoping for machines that will translate Russian instantly. I'm afraid I can't do that." The winter lasts two decades, with just a few heat waves of progress. Common-sense AI Douglas Lenat sets out to construct an AI that can do common-sense reasoning. He develops it for 30 years before it is used commercially.

By extending Cyc's ontology and KB approximately 2%, Cycorp and Cleveland Clinic Foundation (CCF) have built a system to answer clinical researchers' ad hoc queries. The query may be long and complex, hence only partially understood at first, parsed into a set of CycL (higher-order logic) fragments with open variables. But, surprisingly often, after applying various constraints (medical domain knowledge, common sense, discourse pragmatics, syntax), there is only one single way to fit those fragments together, one semantically meaningful formal query P. The system, SRA (for Semantic Research Assistant), dispatches a series of database calls and then combines, logically and arithmetically, their results into answers to P. Seeing the first few answers stream back, the user may realize that they need to abort, modify, and re-ask their query. Even before they push ASK, just knowing approximately how many answers would be returned can spark such editing. Besides real-time ad hoc query-answering, queries can be bundled and persist over time.

### On the Role of Conceptualization in Commonsense Knowledge Graph Construction

Commonsense knowledge graphs (CKGs) like Atomic and ASER are substantially different from conventional KGs as they consist of much larger number of nodes formed by loosely-structured text, which, though, enables them to handle highly diverse queries in natural language related to commonsense, leads to unique challenges for automatic KG construction methods. Besides identifying relations absent from the KG between nodes, such methods are also expected to explore absent nodes represented by text, in which different real-world things, or entities, may appear. To deal with the innumerable entities involved with commonsense in the real world, we introduce to CKG construction methods conceptualization, i.e., to view entities mentioned in text as instances of specific concepts or vice versa. We build synthetic triples by conceptualization, and further formulate the task as triple classification, handled by a discriminatory model with knowledge transferred from pretrained language models and fine-tuned by negative sampling. Experiments demonstrate that our methods can effectively identify plausible triples and expand the KG by triples of both new nodes and edges of high diversity and novelty.

### Inferential Text Generation with Multiple Knowledge Sources and Meta-Learning

We study the problem of generating inferential texts of events for a variety of commonsense like \textit{if-else} relations. Existing approaches typically use limited evidence from training examples and learn for each relation individually. In this work, we use multiple knowledge sources as fuels for the model. Existing commonsense knowledge bases like ConceptNet are dominated by taxonomic knowledge (e.g., \textit{isA} and \textit{relatedTo} relations), having a limited number of inferential knowledge. We use not only structured commonsense knowledge bases, but also natural language snippets from search-engine results. These sources are incorporated into a generative base model via key-value memory network. In addition, we introduce a meta-learning based multi-task learning algorithm. For each targeted commonsense relation, we regard the learning of examples from other relations as the meta-training process, and the evaluation on examples from the targeted relation as the meta-test process. We conduct experiments on Event2Mind and ATOMIC datasets. Results show that both the integration of multiple knowledge sources and the use of the meta-learning algorithm improve the performance.

### Extending Automated Deduction for Commonsense Reasoning

Commonsense reasoning has long been considered as one of the holy grails of artificial intelligence. Most of the recent progress in the field has been achieved by novel machine learning algorithms for natural language processing. However, without incorporating logical reasoning, these algorithms remain arguably shallow. With some notable exceptions, developers of practical automated logic-based reasoners have mostly avoided focusing on the problem. The paper argues that the methods and algorithms used by existing automated reasoners for classical first-order logic can be extended towards commonsense reasoning. Instead of devising new specialized logics we propose a framework of extensions to the mainstream resolution-based search methods to make these capable of performing search tasks for practical commonsense reasoning with reasonable efficiency. The proposed extensions mostly rely on operating on ordinary proof trees and are devised to handle commonsense knowledge bases containing inconsistencies, default rules, taxonomies, topics, relevance, confidence and similarity measures. We claim that machine learning is best suited for the construction of commonsense knowledge bases while the extended logic-based methods would be well-suited for actually answering queries from these knowledge bases.

### Can AI Achieve Common Sense to Make Machines More Intelligent?

Today machines with artificial intelligence (AI) are becoming more prevalent in society. Across many fields, AI has taken over numerous tasks that humans used to do earlier. As the reference is to human intelligence, artificial intelligence is being modified into what humans can do. However, the technology has not yet matched the level of utmost wisdom possessed by humans and it seems like it is not going to achieve the milestone any time sooner. To replace human beings at most jobs, machines need to exhibit what we intuitively call "common sense".

### Connective Cognition Network for Directional Visual Commonsense Reasoning

Visual commonsense reasoning (VCR) has been introduced to boost research of cognition-level visual understanding, i.e., a thorough understanding of correlated details of the scene plus an inference with related commonsense knowledge. Recent studies on neuroscience have suggested that brain function or cognition can be described as a global and dynamic integration of local neuronal connectivity, which is context-sensitive to specific cognition tasks. Inspired by this idea, towards VCR, we propose a connective cognition network (CCN) to dynamically reorganize the visual neuron connectivity that is contextualized by the meaning of questions and answers. Concretely, we first develop visual neuron connectivity to fully model correlations of visual content. Then, a contextualization process is introduced to fuse the sentence representation with that of visual neurons.

### Heterogeneous Graph Learning for Visual Commonsense Reasoning

Visual commonsense reasoning task aims at leading the research field into solving cognition-level reasoning with the ability to predict correct answers and meanwhile providing convincing reasoning paths, resulting in three sub-tasks i.e., Q- A, QA- R and Q- AR. It poses great challenges over the proper semantic alignment between vision and linguistic domains and knowledge reasoning to generate persuasive reasoning paths. Existing works either resort to a powerful end-to-end network that cannot produce interpretable reasoning paths or solely explore intra-relationship of visual objects (homogeneous graph) while ignoring the cross-domain semantic alignment among visual concepts and linguistic words. In this paper, we propose a new Heterogeneous Graph Learning (HGL) framework for seamlessly integrating the intra-graph and inter-graph reasoning in order to bridge the vision and language domain. Our HGL consists of a primal vision-to-answer heterogeneous graph (VAHG) module and a dual question-to-answer heterogeneous graph (QAHG) module to interactively refine reasoning paths for semantic agreement.

### Natural Language QA Approaches using Reasoning with External Knowledge

Question answering (QA) in natural language (NL) has been an important aspect of AI from its early days. Winograd's councilmen'' example in his 1972 paper and McCarthy's Mr. Hug example of 1976 highlights the role of external knowledge in NL understanding. While Machine Learning has been the go-to approach in NL processing as well as NL question answering (NLQA) for the last 30 years, recently there has been an increasingly emphasized thread on NLQA where external knowledge plays an important role. The challenges inspired by Winograd's councilmen example, and recent developments such as the Rebooting AI book, various NLQA datasets, research on knowledge acquisition in the NLQA context, and their use in various NLQA models have brought the issue of NLQA using reasoning'' with external knowledge to the forefront. In this paper, we present a survey of the recent work on them. We believe our survey will help establish a bridge between multiple fields of AI, especially between (a) the traditional fields of knowledge representation and reasoning and (b) the field of NL understanding and NLQA.