Knowledge that Everyone Knows. "People do not walk on their heads." The assertion comes about 900 statements deep into the 527,308 items that comprise the Open Mind common sense database. It's after "Laws are the rules of society" and before "The sky is blue during the day." This collection of mundane facts, which would take more than 20,000 pages to print out, consists entirely of statements so unremarkable they are barely worth stating. Most of us would correctly dismiss them as common sense.
– from D.C. Denison, Guess who's smarter. Boston Globe Online (page hosted at MIT), May 26, 2003.
Detecting what emotions are expressed in text is a well-studied problem in natural language processing. However, research on finer grained emotion analysis such as what causes an emotion is still in its infancy. We present solutions that tackle both emotion recognition and emotion cause detection in a joint fashion. Considering that common-sense knowledge plays an important role in understanding implicitly expressed emotions and the reasons for those emotions, we propose novel methods that combine common-sense knowledge via adapted knowledge models with multi-task learning to perform joint emotion classification and emotion cause tagging. We show performance improvement on both tasks when including common-sense reasoning and a multitask framework. We provide a thorough analysis to gain insights into model performance.
Commonsense reasoning research has so far been limited to English. We aim to evaluate and improve popular multilingual language models (ML-LMs) to help advance commonsense reasoning (CSR) beyond English. We collect the Mickey Corpus, consisting of 561k sentences in 11 different languages, which can be used for analyzing and improving ML-LMs. We propose Mickey Probe, a language-agnostic probing task for fairly evaluating the common sense of popular ML-LMs across different languages. In addition, we also create two new datasets, X-CSQA and X-CODAH, by translating their English versions to 15 other languages, so that we can evaluate popular ML-LMs for cross-lingual commonsense reasoning. To improve the performance beyond English, we propose a simple yet effective method -- multilingual contrastive pre-training (MCP). It significantly enhances sentence representations, yielding a large performance gain on both benchmarks.
Many commonsense reasoning NLP tasks involve choosing between one or more possible answers to a question or prompt based on knowledge that is often implicit. Large pretrained language models (PLMs) can achieve near-human performance on such tasks, while providing little human-interpretable evidence of the underlying reasoning they use. In this work, we show how to use these same models to generate such evidence: inspired by the contrastive nature of human explanations, we use PLMs to complete explanation prompts which contrast alternatives according to the key attribute(s) required to justify the correct answer (for example, peanuts are usually salty while raisins are sweet). Conditioning model decisions on these explanations improves performance on two commonsense reasoning benchmarks, as compared to previous non-contrastive alternatives. These explanations are also judged by humans to be more relevant for solving the task, and facilitate a novel method to evaluate explanation faithfulfness.
Commonsense reasoning is intuitive for humans but has been a long-term challenge for artificial intelligence (AI). Recent advancements in pretrained language models have shown promising results on several commonsense benchmark datasets. However, the reliability and comprehensiveness of these benchmarks towards assessing model's commonsense reasoning ability remains unclear. To this end, we introduce a new commonsense reasoning benchmark dataset comprising natural language true/false statements, with each sample paired with its complementary counterpart, resulting in 4k sentence pairs. We propose a pairwise accuracy metric to reliably measure an agent's ability to perform commonsense reasoning over a given situation. The dataset is crowdsourced and enhanced with an adversarial model-in-the-loop setup to incentivize challenging samples. To facilitate a systematic analysis of commonsense capabilities, we design our dataset along the dimensions of knowledge domains, reasoning scenarios and numeracy. Experimental results demonstrate that our strongest baseline (UnifiedQA-3B), after fine-tuning, achieves ~71% standard accuracy and ~51% pairwise accuracy, well below human performance (~95% for both metrics). The dataset is available at https://github.com/PlusLabNLP/Com2Sense.
Commonsense inference to understand and explain human language is a fundamental research problem in natural language processing. Explaining human conversations poses a great challenge as it requires contextual understanding, planning, inference, and several aspects of reasoning including causal, temporal, and commonsense reasoning. In this work, we introduce CIDER -- a manually curated dataset that contains dyadic dialogue explanations in the form of implicit and explicit knowledge triplets inferred using contextual commonsense inference. Extracting such rich explanations from conversations can be conducive to improving several downstream applications. The annotated triplets are categorized by the type of commonsense knowledge present (e.g., causal, conditional, temporal). We set up three different tasks conditioned on the annotated dataset: Dialogue-level Natural Language Inference, Span Extraction, and Multi-choice Span Selection. Baseline results obtained with transformer-based models reveal that the tasks are difficult, paving the way for promising future research. The dataset and the baseline implementations are publicly available at https://github.com/declare-lab/CIDER.
We propose PIGLeT: a model that learns physical commonsense knowledge through interaction, and then uses this knowledge to ground language. We factorize PIGLeT into a physical dynamics model, and a separate language model. Our dynamics model learns not just what objects are but also what they do: glass cups break when thrown, plastic ones don't. We then use it as the interface to our language model, giving us a unified model of linguistic form and grounded meaning. PIGLeT can read a sentence, simulate neurally what might happen next, and then communicate that result through a literal symbolic representation, or natural language. Experimental results show that our model effectively learns world dynamics, along with how to communicate them. It is able to correctly forecast "what happens next" given an English sentence over 80% of the time, outperforming a 100x larger, text-to-text approach by over 10%. Likewise, its natural language summaries of physical interactions are also judged by humans as more accurate than LM alternatives. We present comprehensive analysis showing room for future work.
ASCENT is a fully automated methodology for extracting and consolidating commonsense assertions from web contents (Nguyen et al., WWW 2021). It advances traditional triple-based commonsense knowledge representation by capturing semantic facets like locations and purposes, and composite concepts, i.e., subgroups and related aspects of subjects. In this demo, we present a web portal that allows users to understand its construction process, explore its content, and observe its impact in the use case of question answering. The demo website and an introductory video are both available online.
Commonsense generation is a challenging task of generating a plausible sentence describing an everyday scenario using provided concepts. Its requirement of reasoning over commonsense knowledge and compositional generalization ability even puzzles strong pre-trained language generation models. We propose a novel framework using retrieval methods to enhance both the pre-training and fine-tuning for commonsense generation. We retrieve prototype sentence candidates by concept matching and use them as auxiliary input. For fine-tuning, we further boost its performance with a trainable sentence retriever. We demonstrate experimentally on the large-scale CommonGen benchmark that our approach achieves new state-of-the-art results.
Commonsense reasoning aims to incorporate sets of commonsense facts, retrieved from Commonsense Knowledge Graphs (CKG), to draw conclusion about ordinary situations. The dynamic nature of commonsense knowledge postulates models capable of performing multi-hop reasoning over new situations. This feature also results in having large-scale sparse Knowledge Graphs, where such reasoning process is needed to predict relations between new events. However, existing approaches in this area are limited by considering CKGs as a limited set of facts, thus rendering them unfit for reasoning over new unseen situations and events. In this paper, we present a neural-symbolic reasoner, which is capable of reasoning over large-scale dynamic CKGs. The logic rules for reasoning over CKGs are learned during training by our model. In addition to providing interpretable explanation, the learned logic rules help to generalise prediction to newly introduced events. Experimental results on the task of link prediction on CKGs prove the effectiveness of our model by outperforming the state-of-the-art models.
Abstract: Compiling commonsense knowledge is traditionally an AI topic approached by manual labor. Recent advances in web data processing have enabled automated approaches. In this demonstration we will showcase three systems for automated commonsense knowledge base construction, highlighting each time one aspect of specific interest to the data management community. The demos are available online at https://quasimodo.r2.enst.fr, Knowledge and reasoning about general-world concepts are major challenges in AI. In recent years, these tasks are supported by a growing number of knowledge repositories, so-called commonsense knowledge bases (CSKBs), that store statements like lions live in groups, or painters use pencils.