Knowledge that Everyone Knows. "People do not walk on their heads." The assertion comes about 900 statements deep into the 527,308 items that comprise the Open Mind common sense database. It's after "Laws are the rules of society" and before "The sky is blue during the day." This collection of mundane facts, which would take more than 20,000 pages to print out, consists entirely of statements so unremarkable they are barely worth stating. Most of us would correctly dismiss them as common sense.
– from D.C. Denison, Guess who's smarter. Boston Globe Online (page hosted at MIT), May 26, 2003.
In this paper, we present CogNet, a knowledge base (KB) dedicated to integrating three types of knowledge: (1) linguistic knowledge from FrameNet, which schematically describes situations, objects and events. (2) world knowledge from YAGO, Freebase, DBpedia and Wikidata, which provides explicit knowledge about specific instances. (3) commonsense knowledge from ConceptNet, which describes implicit general facts. To model these different types of knowledge consistently, we introduce a three-level unified frame-styled representation architecture. To integrate free-form commonsense knowledge with other structured knowledge, we propose a strategy that combines automated labeling and crowdsourced annotation. At present, CogNet integrates 1,000+ semantic frames from linguistic KBs, 20,000,000+ frame instances from world KBs, as well as 90,000+ commonsense assertions from commonsense KBs. All these data can be easily queried and explored on our online platform, and free to download in RDF format for utilization under a CC-BY-SA 4.0 license. The demo and data are available at http://cognet.top/.
To achieve human-like common sense about everyday life, machine learning systems must understand and reason about the goals, preferences, and actions of others. Human infants intuitively achieve such common sense by making inferences about the underlying causes of other agents' actions. Directly informed by research on infant cognition, our benchmark BIB challenges machines to achieve generalizable, common-sense reasoning about other agents like human infants do. As in studies on infant cognition, moreover, we use a violation of expectation paradigm in which machines must predict the plausibility of an agent's behavior given a video sequence, making this benchmark appropriate for direct validation with human infants in future studies. We show that recently proposed, deep-learning-based agency reasoning models fail to show infant-like reasoning, leaving BIB an open challenge.
AI can do a lot of things extremely well. One thing that it can do just okay -- which, frankly, is still quite extraordinary -- is write college term papers. That's the finding from EduRef, a resource for students and educators, which ran an experiment to determine if a deep learning language prediction model known as GPT-3 could get passing marks in an anonymized trial. Everything you need to know about OpenAI's breakthrough AI language program "We hired a panel of professors to create a writing prompt, gave it to a group of recent grads and undergraduate-level writers, and fed it to GPT-3 and had the panel grade the anonymous submissions and complete a follow up survey for thoughts about the writers," according to an EduRef post. The results were a surprising demonstration of the natural-language prowess of AI.
AI can do a lot of things extremely well. One thing that it can do just okay -- which, frankly, is still quite extraordinary -- is write college term papers. That's the finding from EduRef, a resource for students and educators, which ran an experiment to determine if a deep learning language prediction model known as GPT-3 could get passing marks in an anonymized trial. AI might be a hot topic but you'll still need to justify those projects. "We hired a panel of professors to create a writing prompt, gave it to a group of recent grads and undergraduate-level writers, and fed it to GPT-3 and had the panel grade the anonymous submissions and complete a follow up survey for thoughts about the writers," according to an EduRef post.
We revisit the challenging problem of resolving prepositional-phrase (PP) attachment ambiguity. To date, proposed solutions are either rule-based, where explicit grammar rules direct how to resolve ambiguities; or statistical, where the decision is learned from a corpus of labeled examples. We argue that explicit commonsense knowledge bases can provide an essential ingredient for making good attachment decisions. We implemented a module, named Patch-Comm, that can be used by a variety of conventional parsers, to make attachment decisions. Where the commonsense KB does not provide direct answers, we fall back on a more general system that infers "out-of-knowledge-base" assertions in a manner similar to the way some NLP systems handle out-of-vocabulary words. Our results suggest that the commonsense knowledge-based approach can provide the best of both worlds, integrating rule-based and statistical techniques. As the field is increasingly coming to recognize the importance of explainability in AI, a commonsense approach can enable NLP developers to better understand the behavior of systems, and facilitate natural dialogues with end users.
Identifying user intents from natural language utterances is a crucial step in conversational systems that has been extensively studied as a supervised classification problem. However, in practice, new intents emerge after deploying an intent detection model. Thus, these models should seamlessly adapt and classify utterances with both seen and unseen intents -- unseen intents emerge after deployment and they do not have training data. The few existing models that target this setting rely heavily on the scarcely available training data and overfit to seen intents data, resulting in a bias to misclassify utterances with unseen intents into seen ones. We propose RIDE: an intent detection model that leverages commonsense knowledge in an unsupervised fashion to overcome the issue of training data scarcity. RIDE computes robust and generalizable relationship meta-features that capture deep semantic relationships between utterances and intent labels; these features are computed by considering how the concepts in an utterance are linked to those in an intent label via commonsense knowledge. Our extensive experimental analysis on three widely-used intent detection benchmarks shows that relationship meta-features significantly increase the accuracy of detecting both seen and unseen intents and that RIDE outperforms the state-of-the-art model for unseen intents.
Commonsense knowledge has proven to be beneficial to a variety of application areas, including question answering and natural language understanding. Previous work explored collecting commonsense knowledge triples automatically from text to increase the coverage of current commonsense knowledge graphs. We investigate a few machine learning approaches to mining commonsense knowledge triples using dictionary term definitions as inputs and provide some initial evaluation of the results. We start from extracting candidate triples using part-of-speech tag patterns from text, and then compare the performance of three existing models for triple scoring. Our experiments show that term definitions contain some valid and novel commonsense knowledge triples for some semantic relations, and also indicate some challenges with using existing triple scoring models.
This observation--that to understand Proust's text requires knowledge of various kinds--is not a new one. We came across it before, in the context of the Cyc project. Remember that Cyc was supposed to be given knowledge corresponding to the whole of consensus reality, and the Cyc hypothesis was that this would yield human-level general intelligence. Researchers in knowledge-based AI would be keen for me to point out to you that, decades ago, they anticipated exactly this issue. But it is not obvious that just continuing to refine deep learning techniques will address this problem.
Commonsense knowledge is essential for many AI applications, including those in natural language processing, visual processing, and planning. Consequently, many sources that include commonsense knowledge have been designed and constructed over the past decades. Recently, the focus has been on large text-based sources, which facilitate easier integration with neural (language) models and application on textual tasks, typically at the expense of the semantics of the sources. Such practice prevents the harmonization of these sources, understanding their coverage and gaps, and may hinder the semantic alignment of their knowledge with downstream tasks. Efforts to consolidate commonsense knowledge have yielded partial success, but provide no clear path towards a comprehensive consolidation of existing commonsense knowledge. The ambition of this paper is to organize these sources around a common set of dimensions of commonsense knowledge. For this purpose, we survey a wide range of popular commonsense sources with a special focus on their relations. We consolidate these relations into 13 knowledge dimensions, each abstracting over more specific relations found in sources. This consolidation allows us to unify the separate sources and to compute indications of their coverage, overlap, and gaps with respect to the knowledge dimensions. Moreover, we analyze the impact of each dimension on downstream reasoning tasks that require commonsense knowledge, observing that the temporal and desire/goal dimensions are very beneficial for reasoning on current downstream tasks, while distinctness and lexical knowledge have little impact. These results reveal focus towards some dimensions in current evaluation, and potential neglect of others.