Case-Based Reasoning

Introducing AI Explainability 360 IBM Research Blog


The toolkit has been engineered with a common interface for all of the different ways of explaining (not an easy feat) and is extensible to accelerate innovation by the community advancing AI explainability. We are open sourcing it to help create a community of practice for data scientists, policymakers, and the general public that need to understand how algorithmic decision making affects them. AI Explainability 360 differs from other open source explainability offerings [1] through the diversity of its methods, focus on educating a variety of stakeholders, and extensibility via a common framework. Moreover, it interoperates with AI Fairness 360 and Adversarial Robustness 360, two other open-source toolboxes from IBM Research released in 2018, to support the development of holistic trustworthy machine learning pipelines. The initial release contains eight algorithms recently created by IBM Research, and also includes metrics from the community that serve as quantitative proxies for the quality of explanations. Beyond the initial release, we encourage contributions of other algorithms from the broader research community.

Turbo Charge AI with Right Brain-Based Reasoning


AI is blossoming, but the real advantage of AI is yet to come. While organizations are mesmerized by the power of AI on left-brained activities of facts, rules, and logic, the big opportunity lies fallow. It's the right-brained activities that help with insight, interpretation, intuition, judgment, and reasoning where the big benefits can be gleaned. The leverage of general policies, creativity, and constraints is not natural in the world of AI today. Because it is difficult today, many pass reasoning and judgment by these days.

A Electric Network Reconfiguration Strategy with Case-Based Reasoning for the Smart Grid Artificial Intelligence

The complexity, heterogeneity and scale of electrical networks have grown far beyond the limits of exclusively human-based management at the Smart Grid (SG). Likewise, researchers cogitate the use of artificial intelligence and heuristics techniques to create cognitive and autonomic management tools that aim better assist and enhance SG management processes like in the grid reconfiguration. The development of self-healing management approaches towards a cognitive and autonomic distribution power network reconfiguration is a scenario in which the scalability and on-the-fly computation are issues. This paper proposes the use of Case-Based Reasoning (CBR) coupled with the HATSGA algorithm for the fast reconfiguration of large distribution power networks. The suitability and the scalability of the CBR-based reconfiguration strategy using HATSGA algorithm are evaluated. The evaluation indicates that the adopted HATSGA algorithm computes new reconfiguration topologies with a feasible computational time for large networks. The CBR strategy looks for managerial acceptable reconfiguration solutions at the CBR database and, as such, contributes to reduce the required number of reconfiguration computation using HATSGA. This suggests CBR can be applied with a fast reconfiguration algorithm resulting in more efficient, dynamic and cognitive grid recovery strategy.

A Comparison of Super-Resolution and Nearest Neighbors Interpolation Applied to Object Detection on Satellite Data Machine Learning

As Super-Resolution (SR) has matured as a research topic, it has been applied to additional topics beyond image reconstruction. In particular, combining classification or object detection tasks with a super-resolution preprocessing stage has yielded improvements in accuracy especially with objects that are small relative to the scene. While SR has shown promise, a study comparing SR and naive upscaling methods such as Nearest Neighbors (NN) interpolation when applied as a preprocessing step for object detection has not been performed. We apply the topic to satellite data and compare the Multi-scale Deep Super-Resolution (MDSR) system to NN on the xView challenge dataset. To do so, we propose a pipeline for processing satellite data that combines multi-stage image tiling and upscaling, the YOLOv2 object detection architecture, and label stitching. We compare the effects of training models using an upscaling factor of 4, upscaling images from 30cm Ground Sample Distance (GSD) to an effective GSD of 7.5cm. Upscaling by this factor significantly improves detection results, increasing Average Precision (AP) of a generalized vehicle class by 23 percent. We demonstrate that while SR produces upscaled images that are more visually pleasing than their NN counterparts, object detection networks see little difference in accuracy with images upsampled using NN obtaining nearly identical results to the MDSRx4 enhanced images with a difference of 0.0002 AP between the two methods.

Case-Based Reasoning for Assisting Domain Experts in Processing Fraud Alerts of Black-Box Machine Learning Models Machine Learning

In many contexts, it can be useful for domain experts to understand to what extent predictions made by a machine learning model can be trusted. In particular, estimates of trustworthiness can be useful for fraud analysts who process machine learning-generated alerts of fraudulent transactions. In this work, we present a case-based reasoning (CBR) approach that provides evidence on the trustworthiness of a prediction in the form of a visualization of similar previous instances. Different from previous works, we consider similarity of local post-hoc explanations of predictions and show empirically that our visualization can be useful for processing alerts. Furthermore, our approach is perceived useful and easy to use by fraud analysts at a major Dutch bank.

Learning Nearest Neighbor Graphs from Noisy Distance Samples Machine Learning

We consider the problem of learning the nearest neighbor graph of a dataset of n items. The metric is unknown, but we can query an oracle to obtain a noisy estimate of the distance between any pair of items. This framework applies to problem domains where one wants to learn people's preferences from responses commonly modeled as noisy distance judgments. In this paper, we propose an active algorithm to find the graph with high probability and analyze its query complexity. In contrast to existing work that forces Euclidean structure, our method is valid for general metrics, assuming only symmetry and the triangle inequality. Furthermore, we demonstrate efficiency of our method empirically and theoretically, needing only O(n log(n)Delta^-2) queries in favorable settings, where Delta^-2 accounts for the effect of noise. Using crowd-sourced data collected for a subset of the UT Zappos50K dataset, we apply our algorithm to learn which shoes people believe are most similar and show that it beats both an active baseline and ordinal embedding.

Approaching Adaptation Guided Retrieval in Case-Based Reasoning through Inference in Undirected Graphical Models Artificial Intelligence

In Case-Based Reasoning, when the similarity assumption does not hold, the retrieval of a set of cases structurally similar to the query does not guarantee to get a reusable or revisable solution. Knowledge about the adaptability of solutions has to be exploited, in order to define a method for adaptation-guided retrieval. We propose a novel approach to address this problem, where knowledge about the adaptability of the solutions is captured inside a metric Markov Random Field (MRF). Nodes of the MRF represent cases and edges connect nodes whose solutions are close in the solution space. States of the nodes represent different adaptation levels with respect to the potential query. Metric-based potentials enforce connected nodes to share the same state, since cases having similar solutions should have the same adaptability level with respect to the query. The main goal is to enlarge the set of potentially adaptable cases that are retrieved without significantly sacrificing the precision and accuracy of retrieval. We will report on some experiments concerning a retrieval architecture where a simple kNN retrieval (on the problem description) is followed by a further retrieval step based on MRF inference.

Similarity Measure Development for Case-Based Reasoning- A Data-driven Approach Artificial Intelligence

In this paper, we demonstrate a data-driven methodology for modelling the local similarity measures of various attributes in a dataset. We analyse the spread in the numerical attributes and estimate their distribution using polynomial function to showcase an approach for deriving strong initial value ranges of numerical attributes and use a non-overlapping distribution for categorical attributes such that the entire similarity range [0,1] is utilized. We use an open source dataset for demonstrating modelling and development of the similarity measures and will present a case-based reasoning (CBR) system that can be used to search for the most relevant similar cases.

The Twin-System Approach as One Generic Solution for XAI: An Overview of ANN-CBR Twins for Explaining Deep Learning Artificial Intelligence

The notion of twin systems is proposed to address the eXplainable AI (XAI) problem, where an uninterpretable black-box system is mapped to a white-box 'twin' that is more interpretable. In this short paper, we overview very recent work that advances a generic solution to the XAI problem, the so called twin system approach. The most popular twinning in the literature is that between an Artificial Neural Networks (ANN ) as a black box and Case Based Reasoning (CBR) system as a white-box, where the latter acts as an interpretable proxy for the former. We outline how recent work reviving this idea has applied it to deep learning methods. Furthermore, we detail the many fruitful directions in which this work may be taken; such as, determining the most (i) accurate feature-weighting methods to be used, (ii) appropriate deployments for explanatory cases, (iii) useful cases of explanatory value to users.

How Case Based Reasoning Explained Neural Networks: An XAI Survey of Post-Hoc Explanation-by-Example in ANN-CBR Twins Artificial Intelligence

This paper proposes a theoretical analysis of one approach to the eXplainable AI (XAI) problem, using post-hoc explanation-by-example, that relies on the twinning of artificial neural networks (ANNs) with case-based reasoning (CBR) systems; so-called ANN-CBR twins. It surveys these systems to advance a new theoretical interpretation of previous work and define a road map for CBR's further role in XAI. A systematic survey of 1102 papers was conducted to identify a fragmented literature on this topic and trace its influence to more recent work involving deep neural networks (DNNs). The twin-system approach is advanced as one possible coherent, generic solution to the XAI problem. The paper concludes by road-mapping future directions for this XAI solution, considering (i) further tests of feature-weighting techniques, (ii) how explanatory cases might be deployed (e.g., in counterfactuals, a fortori cases), and (iii) the unwelcome, much-ignored issue of user evaluation.