Case-Based Reasoning


Taking machine thinking out of the black box

#artificialintelligence

Software applications provide people with many kinds of automated decisions, such as identifying what an individual's credit risk is, informing a recruiter of which job candidate to hire, or determining whether someone is a threat to the public. In recent years, news headlines have warned of a future in which machines operate in the background of society, deciding the course of human lives while using untrustworthy logic. Part of this fear is derived from the obscure way in which many machine learning models operate. Known as black-box models, they are defined as systems in which the journey from input to output is next to impossible for even their developers to comprehend. "As machine learning becomes ubiquitous and is used for applications with more serious consequences, there's a need for people to understand how it's making predictions so they'll trust it when it's doing more than serving up an advertisement," says Jonathan Su, a member of the technical staff in MIT Lincoln Laboratory's Informatics and Decision Support Group.


Taking machine thinking out of the black box

MIT News

Software applications provide people with many kinds of automated decisions, such as identifying what an individual's credit risk is, informing a recruiter of which job candidate to hire, or determining whether someone is a threat to the public. In recent years, news headlines have warned of a future in which machines operate in the background of society, deciding the course of human lives while using untrustworthy logic. Part of this fear is derived from the obscure way in which many machine learning models operate. Known as black-box models, they are defined as systems in which the journey from input to output is next to impossible for even their developers to comprehend. "As machine learning becomes ubiquitous and is used for applications with more serious consequences, there's a need for people to understand how it's making predictions so they'll trust it when it's doing more than serving up an advertisement," says Jonathan Su, a member of the technical staff in MIT Lincoln Laboratory's Informatics and Decision Support Group.


Bayesian Patchworks: An Approach to Case-Based Reasoning

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Doctors often rely on their past experience in order to diagnose patients. For a doctor with enough experience, almost every patient would have similarities to key cases seen in the past, and each new patient could be viewed as a mixture of these key past cases. Because doctors often tend to reason this way, an efficient computationally aided diagnostic tool that thinks in the same way might be helpful in locating key past cases of interest that could assist with diagnosis. This article develops a novel mathematical model to mimic the type of logical thinking that physicians use when considering past cases. The proposed model can also provide physicians with explanations that would be similar to the way they would naturally reason about cases. The proposed method is designed to yield predictive accuracy, computational efficiency, and insight into medical data; the key element is the insight into medical data, in some sense we are automating a complicated process that physicians might perform manually. We finally implemented the result of this work on two publicly available healthcare datasets, for heart disease prediction and breast cancer prediction.


Net neutrality activists, state officials are taking the FCC to court. Here's how they'll argue the case.

Washington Post

Opponents of the Federal Communications Commission have outlined their chief arguments on net neutrality to a federal appeals court in Washington, in hopes of undoing the FCC's move last year to repeal its own rules for Internet service providers. The legal briefs reflect a widening front in the multipronged campaign by consumer groups and tech companies to rescue the ISP regulations, which originally barred providers from blocking websites or slowing them. With the FCC's changes, Internet providers may legally manipulate Internet traffic as it travels over their infrastructure, as long as they disclose their practices to consumers. The FCC's decision last year to repeal the rules was "arbitrary and capricious," said officials from the state of New York, the California Public Utilities Commission and others in court documents Monday -- asking the U.S. Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit to overrule the agency. The FCC was too credulous in accepting industry promises "to refrain from harmful practices," the officials said, "notwithstanding substantial record evidence showing that [Internet] providers have abused and will abuse their gatekeeper roles in ways that harm consumers and threaten public safety."


Harvey Weinstein seeks to dismiss case based on accuser's emails

BBC News

Hollywood producer Harvey Weinstein is seeking to get the criminal case against him thrown out of court. On Friday, his lawyers filed a defence motion citing dozens of "warm" emails they say Mr Weinstein received from one of his accusers after an alleged rape. His team argue prosecutors should have shared the evidence with the Grand Jury that indicted him. Mr Weinstein has pleaded not guilty to six charges involving three different women. The accuser in question has retained her anonymity.


10 Ways To Improve Cloud ERP With AI & Machine Learning

Forbes Technology

Capitalizing on new digital business models and the growth opportunities they provide are forcing companies to re-evaluate ERP's role. Made inflexible by years of customization, legacy ERP systems aren't delivering what digital business models need today to scale and grow. Legacy ERP systems were purpose-built to excel at production consistency first at the expense of flexibility and responsiveness to customers' changing requirements. By taking a business case-based approach to integrating Artificial Intelligence (AI) and machine learning into their platforms, Cloud ERP providers can fill the gap legacy ERP systems can't. Companies need to be able to respond quickly to unexpected, unfamiliar and unforeseen dilemmas with smart decisions fast for new digital business models to succeed.


Judge Won't Toss Manafort Case Based on Leak Allegations

U.S. News

In a statement, AP spokeswoman Lauren Easton said that AP journalists "met with representatives from the Department of Justice in an effort to get information on stories they were reporting, as reporters do. During the course of the meeting, they asked DOJ representatives about a storage locker belonging to Paul Manafort, without sharing its name or location."


New approximate nearest neighbor benchmarks

#artificialintelligence

Anyway, at some point I got a bit tired of reading papers of various algorithms claiming to be the fastest and most accurate, so I built a benchmark suite called ann-benchmarks. It pits a number of algorithms in a brutal showdown. I recently Dockerized it and wrote about it previously on this blog. So why am I blogging about it just three months later? Well…there's a lot of water under the bridge in the world of approximate nearest neighbors, so I decided to re-run the benchmarks and publish new results. I will probably do this a few times every year, at my own questionable discretion.


Learning to Shoot in First Person Shooter Games by Stabilizing Actions and Clustering Rewards for Reinforcement Learning

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

While reinforcement learning (RL) has been applied to turn-based board games for many years, more complex games involving decision-making in real-time are beginning to receive more attention. A challenge in such environments is that the time that elapses between deciding to take an action and receiving a reward based on its outcome can be longer than the interval between successive decisions. We explore this in the context of a non-player character (NPC) in a modern first-person shooter game. Such games take place in 3D environments where players, both human and computer-controlled, compete by engaging in combat and completing task objectives. We investigate the use of RL to enable NPCs to gather experience from game-play and improve their shooting skill over time from a reward signal based on the damage caused to opponents. We propose a new method for RL updates and reward calculations, in which the updates are carried out periodically, after each shooting encounter has ended, and a new weighted-reward mechanism is used which increases the reward applied to actions that lead to damaging the opponent in successive hits in what we term "hit clusters".