"At the highest level of generality, a general CBR cycle may be described by the following four processes:
– Case-Based Reasoning: Foundational Issues, Methodological Variations, and System Approaches. Agnar Aamodt & Enric Plaza. AI Communications. IOS Press, Vol. 7: 1, pp. 39-59.
The bone fragments found in the Natalee Holloway case could match the DNA of any one of the four missing people who disappeared in or near Aruba. Holloway went missing during her vacation in Aruba, a Dutch Carribean island off Venezuela, on May 30, 2005. The investigation into Holloway's disappearance new human remains, which her parents hoped belonged to their daughter, but a subsequent forensic analysis proved they were not a match. Holloway's father and his private detective had uncovered human bone fragments in Aruba as part of the investigation that was chronicled on Oxygen's "The Disappearance of Natalee Holloway." One of the four bone samples recovered in Aruba was that of human, and Dr. Jason Kolowski, a forensic scientist, said the human bone fragments belong to a single individual.
The following figure shows the result of the range search algorithm on the same dataset after the 2d-tree is grown. The next animations show the nearest neighbor search algorithm for a given query point(the fixed white point with black border: the point (0.3, 0.9)) and how the the branches are traversed and the points (nodes) are visited in the 2-d-tree until the nearest neighbor is found. As can be seen from the next figure, the time complexity of 2-d tree building (insertion), nearest neighbor search and k-nearest neighbor query depend not only on the size of the datasets but also on the geometry of the datasets. The flocking boids simulator is implemented with 2-d-trees and the following 2 animations (java and python respectively) shows how the flock of birds fly together, the black / white ones are the boids and the red one is the predator hawk.
In pattern recognition, the KNN algorithm is a method for classifying objects based on closest training examples in the feature space. KNN is a type of instance-based learning, or lazy learning where the function is only approximated locally and all computation is delayed until classification. The KNN is the fundamental and simplest classification technique when there is little or no prior knowledge about the distribution of the data. The K in KNN refers to number of nearest neighbors that the classifier will use to make its predication.
In an early morning fatal crash Wednesday, which resulted from wrong-way driving (WWD), two people died in Annapolis, Maryland. "Traffic safety and highway design literature has historically defined a wrong-way driving (WWD) crash as one in which a vehicle traveling in a direction opposing the legal flow of traffic on a high-speed divided highway or access ramp collides with a vehicle traveling on the same roadway in the proper direction," according to the website of Department of Transportation Federal Highway Administration. This figure represents approximately 1 percent of the total number of traffic related fatalities which takes place annually, the Department of Transportation Federal Highway Administration reported. In 2016, the Arizona Department of Public Safety had received more than 1,600 reports of a wrong-way driver, a report said citing Raul Garcia, public information officer for the Arizona Department of Public Safety.
So, imagine a runner, let's call her Ann, who has previously run the London marathon in a time of 4 hours 13 minutes (253 minutes), with a given pacing profile; that is, a given set of split-paces. This is a common machine learning technique, based on the intuition that, to solve some new problem (predicting a PB time for Ann) we should look to similar problems in the past (those runners who ran similar non-PB times to Ann) and use their solutions (subsequent PB times) as the basis of a prediction for Ann. In the case of our marathon PB prediction task, if we have lots and lots of cases, covering male and female runners, of all ages and experience levels, and representing a wide range of finish-times, then we have a good chance of being able to find similar runners to act as a basis of a prediction for any given runner whose PB we wish to predict. A key idea in case-based reasoning concerns how we determine the similarity between a new situation (Ann's recent marathon race) and a past problem in some case (Sarah's non-PB race).
In threat trapping, passive technologies identify malware using models of bad behavior like signatures. Unfortunately, developing accurate malware detection products based on good behavior modeling is not easy. But no company has enough human resources to manually evaluate a large number of alerts about possible security threats. When AI applies both bad and good behavior models, it reduces the number of false positives to a manageable amount.
The government said Thursday it has confirmed 27 cases of suspected illegal job placement for retired or retiring bureaucrats, but none were conducted systematically as in a previous case at the education ministry. The government announced the results of the probe covering all ministries and agencies, which began in late January after the education ministry scandal came to light. "We did not find any systematic kind of (law) violations," Kozo Yamamoto, minister in charge of civil service reform, said He did not say which ministries and agencies were involved in the misconduct, but according to the secretariat, at least 12 ministries and agencies were involved. Of the 27 cases, 25 involved help to ministry or agency employees in jobs after retirement, while two involved employees themselves seeking future jobs at entities they supervised, according to the Cabinet Secretariat.
Nearly 200 Democrats in the US Congress have joined forces to file a legal case against President Donald Trump over receipt of payments from foreign governments via his businesses. The plaintiffs accuse Mr Trump of violating the Constitution's emoluments clause, prohibiting receipt of gifts without congressional approval. State officials and private businesses are suing Mr Trump in similar cases. Mr Trump's worldwide organisation includes more than 500 business entities, including hotels, golf courses and apartment buildings, many of which have done business with foreign governments.
Last week, lawyers in the solicitor general's office filed polished briefs in the Supreme Court. In calling the revised order "politically correct," Mr. Trump suggested that his goal throughout had been to exclude travelers based on religion. The Supreme Court has asked people and groups challenging the executive order to file their responses to the government's briefs next Monday. The revised executive order, which the president criticized on Monday, took Iraq off the list of countries that would be affected and made clear that the restrictions did not apply to those who held green cards or valid visas.