Case-Based Reasoning

10. Introduction to Learning, Nearest Neighbors


Sign in to report inappropriate content. Instructor: Patrick Winston This lecture begins with a high-level view of learning, then covers nearest neighbors using several graphical examples. We then discuss how to learn motor skills such as bouncing a tennis ball, and consider the effects of sleep deprivation.

A learning framework for nearest neighbor search

Neural Information Processing Systems

Can we leverage learning techniques to build a fast nearest-neighbor (NN) retrieval data structure? We present a general learning framework for the NN problem in which sample queries are used to learn the parameters of a data structure that minimize the retrieval time and/or the miss rate. We explore the potential of this novel framework through two popular NN data structures: KD-trees and the rectilinear structures employed by locality sensitive hashing. We derive a generalization theory for these data structure classes and present simple learning algorithms for both. Experimental results reveal that learning often improves on the already strong performance of these data structures.

Anomaly Detection with Score functions based on Nearest Neighbor Graphs

Neural Information Processing Systems

We propose a novel non-parametric adaptive anomaly detection algorithm for high dimensional data based on score functions derived from nearest neighbor graphs on n-point nominal data. Anomalies are declared whenever the score of a test sample falls below q, which is supposed to be the desired false alarm level. The resulting anomaly detector is shown to be asymptotically optimal in that it is uniformly most powerful for the specified false alarm level, q, for the case when the anomaly density is a mixture of the nominal and a known density. Our algorithm is computationally efficient, being linear in dimension and quadratic in data size. It does not require choosing complicated tuning parameters or function approximation classes and it can adapt to local structure such as local change in dimensionality.

Estimation of Rényi Entropy and Mutual Information Based on Generalized Nearest-Neighbor Graphs

Neural Information Processing Systems

We present simple and computationally efficient nonparametric estimators of R\'enyi entropy and mutual information based on an i.i.d. The estimators are calculated as the sum of $p$-th powers of the Euclidean lengths of the edges of the generalized nearest-neighbor' graph of the sample and the empirical copula of the sample respectively. For the first time, we prove the almost sure consistency of these estimators and upper bounds on their rates of convergence, the latter of which under the assumption that the density underlying the sample is Lipschitz continuous. Experiments demonstrate their usefulness in independent subspace analysis. Papers published at the Neural Information Processing Systems Conference.

Generative Local Metric Learning for Nearest Neighbor Classification

Neural Information Processing Systems

We consider the problem of learning a local metric to enhance the performance of nearest neighbor classification. Conventional metric learning methods attempt to separate data distributions in a purely discriminative manner; here we show how to take advantage of information from parametric generative models. We focus on the bias in the information-theoretic error arising from finite sampling effects, and find an appropriate local metric that maximally reduces the bias based upon knowledge from generative models. As a byproduct, the asymptotic theoretical analysis in this work relates metric learning with dimensionality reduction, which was not understood from previous discriminative approaches. Empirical experiments show that this learned local metric enhances the discriminative nearest neighbor performance on various datasets using simple class conditional generative models.

Learning Label Embeddings for Nearest-Neighbor Multi-class Classification with an Application to Speech Recognition

Neural Information Processing Systems

We consider the problem of using nearest neighbor methods to provide a conditional probability estimate, P(y a), when the number of labels y is large and the labels share some underlying structure. We propose a method for learning error-correcting output codes (ECOCs) to model the similarity between labels within a nearest neighbor framework. The learned ECOCs and nearest neighbor information are used to provide conditional probability estimates. We apply these estimates to the problem of acoustic modeling for speech recognition. We demonstrate an absolute reduction in word error rate (WER) of 0.9% (a 2.5% relative reduction in WER) on a lecture recognition task over a state-of-the-art baseline GMM model.

Rank-Approximate Nearest Neighbor Search: Retaining Meaning and Speed in High Dimensions

Neural Information Processing Systems

The long-standing problem of efficient nearest-neighbor (NN) search has ubiquitous applications ranging from astrophysics to MP3 fingerprinting to bioinformatics to movie recommendations. As the dimensionality of the dataset increases, exact NN search becomes computationally prohibitive; (1 eps)-distance-approximate NN search can provide large speedups but risks losing the meaning of NN search present in the ranks (ordering) of the distances. This paper presents a simple, practical algorithm allowing the user to, for the first time, directly control the true accuracy of NN search (in terms of ranks) while still achieving the large speedups over exact NN. Experiments with high-dimensional datasets show that it often achieves faster and more accurate results than the best-known distance-approximate method, with much more stable behavior. Papers published at the Neural Information Processing Systems Conference.

Target Neighbor Consistent Feature Weighting for Nearest Neighbor Classification

Neural Information Processing Systems

We consider feature selection and weighting for nearest neighbor classifiers. A technical challenge in this scenario is how to cope with the discrete update of nearest neighbors when the feature space metric is changed during the learning process. This issue, called the target neighbor change, was not properly addressed in the existing feature weighting and metric learning literature. In this paper, we propose a novel feature weighting algorithm that can exactly and efficiently keep track of the correct target neighbors via sequential quadratic programming. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first algorithm that guarantees the consistency between target neighbors and the feature space metric.

Diffusion Decision Making for Adaptive k-Nearest Neighbor Classification

Neural Information Processing Systems

We show that conventional k-nearest neighbor classification can be viewed as a special problem of the diffusion decision model in the asymptotic situation. Applying the optimal strategy associated with the diffusion decision model, an adaptive rule is developed for determining appropriate values of k in k-nearest neighbor classification. Making use of the sequential probability ratio test (SPRT) and Bayesian analysis, we propose five different criteria for adaptively acquiring nearest neighbors. Experiments with both synthetic and real datasets demonstrate the effectivness of our classification criteria. Papers published at the Neural Information Processing Systems Conference.

Parametric Local Metric Learning for Nearest Neighbor Classification

Neural Information Processing Systems

We study the problem of learning local metrics for nearest neighbor classification. Most previous works on local metric learning learn a number of local unrelated metrics. While this ''independence'' approach delivers an increased flexibility its downside is the considerable risk of overfitting. We present a new parametric local metric learning method in which we learn a smooth metric matrix function over the data manifold. Using an approximation error bound of the metric matrix function we learn local metrics as linear combinations of basis metrics defined on anchor points over different regions of the instance space.