Collaborating Authors

Analogical Reasoning

Neural Logic Analogy Learning Artificial Intelligence

Letter-string analogy is an important analogy learning task which seems to be easy for humans but very challenging for machines. The main idea behind current approaches to solving letter-string analogies is to design heuristic rules for extracting analogy structures and constructing analogy mappings. However, one key problem is that it is difficult to build a comprehensive and exhaustive set of analogy structures which can fully describe the subtlety of analogies. This problem makes current approaches unable to handle complicated letter-string analogy problems. In this paper, we propose Neural logic analogy learning (Noan), which is a dynamic neural architecture driven by differentiable logic reasoning to solve analogy problems. Each analogy problem is converted into logical expressions consisting of logical variables and basic logical operations (AND, OR, and NOT). More specifically, Noan learns the logical variables as vector embeddings and learns each logical operation as a neural module. In this way, the model builds computational graph integrating neural network with logical reasoning to capture the internal logical structure of the input letter strings. The analogy learning problem then becomes a True/False evaluation problem of the logical expressions. Experiments show that our machine learning-based Noan approach outperforms state-of-the-art approaches on standard letter-string analogy benchmark datasets.

Data-Driven Design-by-Analogy: State of the Art and Future Directions Artificial Intelligence

Design-by-Analogy (DbA) is a design methodology, wherein new solutions are generated in a target domain based on inspiration drawn from a source domain through cross-domain analogical reasoning [1, 2, 3]. DbA is an active research area in engineering design and various methods and tools have been proposed to support the implement of its process [4, 5, 6, 7, 8]. Studies have shown that DbA can help designers mitigate design fixation [9] and improve design ideation outcomes [10]. Fig.1 presents an example of DbA applications [11]. This case aims to solve an engineering design problem: How might we rectify the loud sonic boom generated when trains travel at high speeds through tunnels in atmospheric conditions [11, 12]? For potential design solutions to this problem, engineers explored structures in other design fields than trains or in the nature that effectively "break" the sonic-boom effect. When looking into the nature, engineers discovered that kingfisher birds could slice through the air and dive into the water at extremely high speeds to catch prey while barely making a splash. By analogy, engineers re-designed the train's front-end nose to mimic the geometry of the kingfisher's beak. This analogical design reduced noise and eliminated tunnel booms.

A Cognitive Science perspective for learning how to design meaningful user experiences and human-centered technology Artificial Intelligence

Misinterpreted or misleading in cognitive science, human-computer interaction (HCI) and stories or facts are known to "go viral" and to increase the natural-language processing (NLP) to consider how analogical likelihood for incivility [11]. Referred to as "misinformation" reasoning (AR) could help inform the design of communication or "disinformation," the phenomenon is, in part, a product of and learning technologies, as well as online communities (exploiting) analogical reasoning and normal cognitive processes and digital platforms. First, analogical reasoning (AR) is [3, 19]. Problematically, digital platforms are efficient defined, and use-cases of AR in the computing sciences are mechanisms for spreading rumors, participating in misinterpretations, presented. The concept of schema is introduced, along with and for misconstruing fact-sharing as opinion [16].

A Description Logic for Analogical Reasoning Artificial Intelligence

Ontologies formalise how the concepts from a given domain are interrelated. Despite their clear potential as a backbone for explainable AI, existing ontologies tend to be highly incomplete, which acts as a significant barrier to their more widespread adoption. To mitigate this issue, we present a mechanism to infer plausible missing knowledge, which relies on reasoning by analogy. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first paper that studies analogical reasoning within the setting of description logic ontologies. After showing that the standard formalisation of analogical proportion has important limitations in this setting, we introduce an alternative semantics based on bijective mappings between sets of features. We then analyse the properties of analogies under the proposed semantics, and show among others how it enables two plausible inference patterns: rule translation and rule extrapolation.

Probabilistic Analogical Mapping with Semantic Relation Networks Artificial Intelligence

These subprocesses are interrelated, with mapping considered to be the pivotal process (Gentner, 1983). Mapping may play a role in retrieval, as mapping a target analog to multiple potential source analogs stored in memory can help identify one or more that seems promising; and the correspondences computed by mapping support subsequent inference and schema induction. Thus, because of its centrality to analogical reasoning, the present paper focuses on the process of mapping between two analogs. We also consider the possible role that mapping may play in analog retrieval. Computational Approaches to Analogy Computational models of analogy have been developed in both artificial intelligence (AI) and cognitive science over more than half a century (for a recent review and critical analysis, see Mitchell, 2021). These models differ in many ways, both in terms of basic assumptions about the constraints that define a "good" analogy for humans, and in the detailed algorithms that accomplish analogical reasoning. For our present purposes, two broad approaches can be distinguished. The first approach, which can be termed representation matching, combines mental representations of structured knowledge about each analog with a matching process that computes some form of relational similarity, yielding a set of correspondences between the elements of the two analogs. The structured knowledge about an analog is typically assumed to approximate the content of propositions expressed in predicate calculus; e.g., the instantiated relation "hammer hits nail" might be coded as hit (hammer, nail).

Selective Replay Enhances Learning in Online Continual Analogical Reasoning Artificial Intelligence

In continual learning, a system learns from non-stationary data streams or batches without catastrophic forgetting. While this problem has been heavily studied in supervised image classification and reinforcement learning, continual learning in neural networks designed for abstract reasoning has not yet been studied. Here, we study continual learning of analogical reasoning. Analogical reasoning tests such as Raven's Progressive Matrices (RPMs) are commonly used to measure non-verbal abstract reasoning in humans, and recently offline neural networks for the RPM problem have been proposed. In this paper, we establish experimental baselines, protocols, and forward and backward transfer metrics to evaluate continual learners on RPMs. We employ experience replay to mitigate catastrophic forgetting. Prior work using replay for image classification tasks has found that selectively choosing the samples to replay offers little, if any, benefit over random selection. In contrast, we find that selective replay can significantly outperform random selection for the RPM task.

Abstraction and Analogy-Making in Artificial Intelligence Artificial Intelligence

Abstract: Conceptual abstraction and analogy-making are key abilities underlying humans' abilities to learn, reason, and robustly adapt their knowledge to new domains. Despite of a long history of research on constructing AI systems with these abilities, no current AI system is anywhere close to a capability of forming humanlike abstractions or analogies. This paper reviews the advantages and limitations of several approaches toward this goal, including symbolic methods, deep learning, and probabilistic program induction. The paper concludes with several proposals for designing challenge tasks and evaluation measures in order to make quantifiable and generalizable progress in this area.

Applying Perceptually Driven Cognitive Mapping to Virtual Urban Environments

AI Magazine

This article describes a method for building a cognitive map of a virtual urban environment. Our routines enable virtual humans to map their environment using a realistic model of perception. We based our implementation on a computational framework proposed by Yeap and Jefferies (1999) for representing a local environment as a structure called an absolute space representation (ASR). Their algorithms compute and update ASRs from a 2-1/2-dimensional (2-1/2D) sketch of the local environment and then connect the ASRs together to form a raw cognitive map.1 Our work extends the framework developed by Yeap and Jefferies in three important ways. First, we implemented the framework in a virtual training environment, the mission rehearsal exercise (Swartout et al. 2001).

Analogy-Making as a Core Primitive in the Software Engineering Toolbox Artificial Intelligence

An analogy is an identification of structural similarities and correspondences between two objects. Computational models of analogy making have been studied extensively in the field of cognitive science to better understand high-level human cognition. For instance, Melanie Mitchell and Douglas Hofstadter sought to better understand high-level perception by developing the Copycat algorithm for completing analogies between letter sequences. In this paper, we argue that analogy making should be seen as a core primitive in software engineering. We motivate this argument by showing how complex software engineering problems such as program understanding and source-code transformation learning can be reduced to an instance of the analogy-making problem. We demonstrate this idea using Sifter, a new analogy-making algorithm suitable for software engineering applications that adapts and extends ideas from Copycat. In particular, Sifter reduces analogy-making to searching for a sequence of update rule applications. Sifter uses a novel representation for mathematical structures capable of effectively representing the wide variety of information embedded in software. We conclude by listing major areas of future work for Sifter and analogy-making in software engineering.

Analogical Proportions Artificial Intelligence

Analogy-making is at the core of human intelligence and creativity with applications to such diverse tasks as commonsense reasoning, learning, language acquisition, and story telling. This paper contributes to the foundations of artificial general intelligence by introducing an abstract algebraic framework of analogical proportions of the form `$a$ is to $b$ what $c$ is to $d$' in the general setting of universal algebra. This enables us to compare mathematical objects possibly across different domains in a uniform way which is crucial for AI-systems. The main idea is to define solutions to analogical equations in terms of generalizations and to derive abstract terms of concrete elements from a `known' source domain which can then be instantiated in an `unknown' target domain to obtain analogous elements. We extensively compare our framework with two prominent and recently introduced frameworks of analogical proportions from the literature in the concrete domains of sets, numbers, and words and show that our framework yields strictly more reasonable solutions in all of these cases which provides evidence for the applicability of our framework. In a broader sense, this paper is a first step towards an algebraic theory of analogical reasoning and learning systems with potential applications to fundamental AI-problems like commonsense reasoning and computational learning and creativity.