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Text Processing


cif-based collaborative decoding for end-to-end contextual speech recognition

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

End-to-end (E2E) models have achieved promising results on multiple speech recognition benchmarks, and shown the potential to become the mainstream. However, the unified structure and the E2E training hamper injecting contextual information into them for contextual biasing. Though contextual LAS (CLAS) gives an excellent all-neural solution, the degree of biasing to given context information is not explicitly controllable. In this paper, we focus on incorporating context information into the continuous integrate-and-fire (CIF) based model that supports contextual biasing in a more controllable fashion. Specifically, an extra context processing network is introduced to extract contextual embeddings, integrate acoustically relevant context information and decode the contextual output distribution, thus forming a collaborative decoding with the decoder of the CIF-based model. Evaluated on the named entity rich evaluation sets of HKUST/AISHELL-2, our method brings relative character error rate (CER) reduction of 8.83%/21.13% and relative named entity character error rate (NE-CER) reduction of 40.14%/51.50% when compared with a strong baseline. Besides, it keeps the performance on original evaluation set without degradation.


Graph integration of structured, semistructured and unstructured data for data journalism

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Such a query can be answered currently at a high human effort cost, by inspecting e.g., a JSON list of Assemblée elected officials (available from NosDeputes.fr) and manually connecting the names with those found in a national registry of companies. This considerable effort may still miss connections that could be found if one added information about politicians' and business people's spouses, information sometimes available in public knowledge bases such as DBPedia, or journalists' notes. No single query language can be used on such heterogeneous data; instead, we study methods to query the corpus by specifying some keywords and asking for all the connections that exist, in one or across several data sources, between these keywords. This problem has been studied under the name of keyword search over structured data, in particular for relational databases [49, 27], XML documents [24, 33], RDF graphs [30, 16]. However, most of these works assumed one single source of data, in which connections among nodes are clearly identified. When authors considered several data sources [31], they still assumed that one query answer comes from a single data source. In contrast, the ConnectionLens system [10] answers keyword search queries over arbitrary combinations of datasets and heterogeneous data models, independently produced by actors unaware of each other's existence.


R$^2$-Net: Relation of Relation Learning Network for Sentence Semantic Matching

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Sentence semantic matching is one of the fundamental tasks in natural language processing, which requires an agent to determine the semantic relation among input sentences. Recently, deep neural networks have achieved impressive performance in this area, especially BERT. Despite the effectiveness of these models, most of them treat output labels as meaningless one-hot vectors, underestimating the semantic information and guidance of relations that these labels reveal, especially for tasks with a small number of labels. To address this problem, we propose a Relation of Relation Learning Network (R2-Net) for sentence semantic matching. Specifically, we first employ BERT to encode the input sentences from a global perspective. Then a CNN-based encoder is designed to capture keywords and phrase information from a local perspective. To fully leverage labels for better relation information extraction, we introduce a self-supervised relation of relation classification task for guiding R2-Net to consider more about labels. Meanwhile, a triplet loss is employed to distinguish the intra-class and inter-class relations in a finer granularity. Empirical experiments on two sentence semantic matching tasks demonstrate the superiority of our proposed model. As a byproduct, we have released the codes to facilitate other researches.


Natural Language Processing Text Classification

#artificialintelligence

Classifying text data from a Data Source which consists of Movie Reviews. The processing of Text Data is mandatory before we start applying Machine Learning Techniques to them. We classified whether the Movie is having a positive or a negative rating by assigning them 1; if the rating is greater than 7 and 0 if the rating is less than 4. There are some unlabeled data that I did not include in my Analysis. We now clean the data and remove the unnecessary formatting in order to make sure that these don't have any impact on our Machine Learning Model.


Semantic Knowledge Graphs

#artificialintelligence

"Semantic Computing technology is used to digitally represent knowledge for AI systems to understand their world in context, using semantic "graphs", ontologies, metadata and rules. Semantic technology can represent relationships between data and ties together different pieces of data because of like attributes (including hidden relationships)."


Semantic Annotation for Tabular Data

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Detecting semantic concept of columns in tabular data is of particular interest to many applications ranging from data integration, cleaning, search to feature engineering and model building in machine learning. Recently, several works have proposed supervised learning-based or heuristic pattern-based approaches to semantic type annotation. Both have shortcomings that prevent them from generalizing over a large number of concepts or examples. Many neural network based methods also present scalability issues. Additionally, none of the known methods works well for numerical data. We propose $C^2$, a column to concept mapper that is based on a maximum likelihood estimation approach through ensembles. It is able to effectively utilize vast amounts of, albeit somewhat noisy, openly available table corpora in addition to two popular knowledge graphs to perform effective and efficient concept prediction for structured data. We demonstrate the effectiveness of $C^2$ over available techniques on 9 datasets, the most comprehensive comparison on this topic so far.


Nested Named Entity Recognition with Partially-Observed TreeCRFs

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Named entity recognition (NER) is a well-studied task in natural language processing. However, the widely-used sequence labeling framework is difficult to detect entities with nested structures. In this work, we view nested NER as constituency parsing with partially-observed trees and model it with partially-observed TreeCRFs. Specifically, we view all labeled entity spans as observed nodes in a constituency tree, and other spans as latent nodes. With the TreeCRF we achieve a uniform way to jointly model the observed and the latent nodes. To compute the probability of partial trees with partial marginalization, we propose a variant of the Inside algorithm, the \textsc{Masked Inside} algorithm, that supports different inference operations for different nodes (evaluation for the observed, marginalization for the latent, and rejection for nodes incompatible with the observed) with efficient parallelized implementation, thus significantly speeding up training and inference. Experiments show that our approach achieves the state-of-the-art (SOTA) F1 scores on the ACE2004, ACE2005 dataset, and shows comparable performance to SOTA models on the GENIA dataset. Our approach is implemented at: \url{https://github.com/FranxYao/Partially-Observed-TreeCRFs}.


Keyword-Guided Neural Conversational Model

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

We study the problem of imposing conversational goals/keywords on open-domain conversational agents, where the agent is required to lead the conversation to a target keyword smoothly and fast. Solving this problem enables the application of conversational agents in many real-world scenarios, e.g., recommendation and psychotherapy. The dominant paradigm for tackling this problem is to 1) train a next-turn keyword classifier, and 2) train a keyword-augmented response retrieval model. However, existing approaches in this paradigm have two limitations: 1) the training and evaluation datasets for next-turn keyword classification are directly extracted from conversations without human annotations, thus, they are noisy and have low correlation with human judgements, and 2) during keyword transition, the agents solely rely on the similarities between word embeddings to move closer to the target keyword, which may not reflect how humans converse. In this paper, we assume that human conversations are grounded on commonsense and propose a keyword-guided neural conversational model that can leverage external commonsense knowledge graphs (CKG) for both keyword transition and response retrieval. Automatic evaluations suggest that commonsense improves the performance of both next-turn keyword prediction and keyword-augmented response retrieval. In addition, both self-play and human evaluations show that our model produces responses with smoother keyword transition and reaches the target keyword faster than competitive baselines.


Distant-Supervised Slot-Filling for E-Commerce Queries

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Slot-filling refers to the task of annotating individual terms in a query with the corresponding intended product characteristics (product type, brand, gender, size, color, etc.). These characteristics can then be used by a search engine to return results that better match the query's product intent. Traditional methods for slot-filling require the availability of training data with ground truth slot-annotation information. However, generating such labeled data, especially in e-commerce is expensive and time-consuming because the number of slots increases as new products are added. In this paper, we present distant-supervised probabilistic generative models, that require no manual annotation. The proposed approaches leverage the readily available historical query logs and the purchases that these queries led to, and also exploit co-occurrence information among the slots in order to identify intended product characteristics. We evaluate our approaches by considering how they affect retrieval performance, as well as how well they classify the slots. In terms of retrieval, our approaches achieve better ranking performance (up to 156%) over Okapi BM25. Moreover, our approach that leverages co-occurrence information leads to better performance than the one that does not on both the retrieval and slot classification tasks.


Efficient Clustering from Distributions over Topics

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

There are many scenarios where we may want to find pairs of textually similar documents in a large corpus (e.g. a researcher doing literature review, or an R&D project manager analyzing project proposals). To programmatically discover those connections can help experts to achieve those goals, but brute-force pairwise comparisons are not computationally adequate when the size of the document corpus is too large. Some algorithms in the literature divide the search space into regions containing potentially similar documents, which are later processed separately from the rest in order to reduce the number of pairs compared. However, this kind of unsupervised methods still incur in high temporal costs. In this paper, we present an approach that relies on the results of a topic modeling algorithm over the documents in a collection, as a means to identify smaller subsets of documents where the similarity function can then be computed. This approach has proved to obtain promising results when identifying similar documents in the domain of scientific publications. We have compared our approach against state of the art clustering techniques and with different configurations for the topic modeling algorithm. Results suggest that our approach outperforms (> 0.5) the other analyzed techniques in terms of efficiency.