Decision Tree Learning


Can You Always Bet Big On Machine Learning? - Analytics India Magazine

#artificialintelligence

Machine learning sure is an umbrella word for many methodologies and tools but one must be clear about the fact that it is not an umbrella word for all the solutions. No one can deny that machine learning has revolutionised the way data can be squeezed in for discoveries. What one should care about is that the enhancement of any technology also depends on a relentless introspective approach in attacking the shortcomings. The rise in popularity sure lures every amateur into believing that they have reached their destination. With tools and frameworks being open-sourced, everyone can play with data, experiment with MNIST datasets and get really good accuracy scores.


A Guide to Decision Trees for Machine Learning and Data Science

#artificialintelligence

Decision Trees are a class of very powerful Machine Learning model cable of achieving high accuracy in many tasks while being highly interpretable. What makes decision trees special in the realm of ML models is really their clarity of information representation. The "knowledge" learned by a decision tree through training is directly formulated into a hierarchical structure. This structure holds and displays the knowledge in such a way that it can easily be understood, even by non-experts. You've probably used a decision tree before to make a decision in your own life.


explained.ai

#artificialintelligence

With dtreeviz, you can visualize how the feature space is split up at decision nodes, how the training samples get distributed in leaf nodes and how the tree makes predictions for a specific observation. These operations are critical to for understanding how classification or regression decision trees work. See article How to visualize decision trees. The scikit-learn Random Forest feature importance and R's default Random Forest feature importance strategies are biased. To get reliable results in Python, use permutation importance, provided here and in our rfpimp package (via pip). A simple Python data-structure visualization tool that started out as a List Of Lists (lol) visualizer but now handles arbitrary object graphs, including function call stacks!


A Guide to Decision Trees for Machine Learning and Data Science

#artificialintelligence

Decision Trees are a class of very powerful Machine Learning model cable of achieving high accuracy in many tasks while being highly interpretable. What makes decision trees special in the realm of ML models is really their clarity of information representation. The "knowledge" learned by a decision tree through training is directly formulated into a hierarchical structure. This structure holds and displays the knowledge in such a way that it can easily be understood, even by non-experts. You've probably used a decision tree before to make a decision in your own life.


How to Visualize a Decision Tree from a Random Forest in Python using Scikit-Learn

#artificialintelligence

This article was written by Will Koehrsen. Here's the complete code: just copy and paste into a Jupyter Notebook or Python script, replace with your data and run: The final result is a complete decision tree as an image. To read the rest of this article with code and illustrations, click here.



Machine Learning - Decision Trees - Michael Fuchs

#artificialintelligence

Due to their structure, decision trees are easy to understand, interpret and visualize. In doing so, a variable check or feature selection is implicitly performed. Both numerical and non-numerical data can be processed simultaneously relatively little effort on the part of the user for the data preparation requires. On the other hand, too complex trees can be created that do not generalize the data well. Small variations in the data can also make the trees unstable, creating a tree that does not solve the problem.


Interpretable Optimal Stopping

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Optimal stopping is the problem of deciding when to stop a stochastic system to obtain the greatest reward, arising in numerous application areas such as finance, healthcare and marketing. State-of-the-art methods for high-dimensional optimal stopping involve approximating the value function or the continuation value, and then using that approximation within a greedy policy. Although such policies can perform very well, they are generally not guaranteed to be interpretable; that is, a decision maker may not be able to easily see the link between the current system state and the policy's action. In this paper, we propose a new approach to optimal stopping, wherein the policy is represented as a binary tree, in the spirit of naturally interpretable tree models commonly used in machine learning. We formulate the problem of learning such policies from observed trajectories of the stochastic system as a sample average approximation (SAA) problem. We prove that the SAA problem converges under mild conditions as the sample size increases, but that computationally even immediate simplifications of the SAA problem are theoretically intractable. We thus propose a tractable heuristic for approximately solving the SAA problem, by greedily constructing the tree from the top down. We demonstrate the value of our approach by applying it to the canonical problem of option pricing, using both synthetic instances and instances calibrated with real S&P 500 data. Our method obtains policies that (1) outperform state-of-the-art non-interpretable methods, based on simulation-regression and martingale duality, and (2) possess a remarkably simple and intuitive structure.


Learn Machine Learning with Weka Udemy

#artificialintelligence

This is the bite size course to learn Weka and Machine Learning. You will learn Machine Learning which is the Model and Evaluation of CRISP Data Mining Process. You will learn Linear Regression, Kmeans Clustering, Agglomeration Clustering, KNN, Naive Bayes, Neural Network in this course.


Pro Machine Learning Algorithms [PDF] - Programmer Books

#artificialintelligence

Bridge the gap between a high-level understanding of how an algorithm works and knowing the nuts and bolts to tune your models better. This book will give you the confidence and skills when developing all the major machine learning models. In Pro Machine Learning Algorithms, you will first develop the algorithm in Excel so that you get a practical understanding of all the levers that can be tuned in a model, before implementing the models in Python/R. You will cover all the major algorithms: supervised and unsupervised learning, which include linear/logistic regression; k-means clustering; PCA; recommender system; decision tree; random forest; GBM; and neural networks. You will also be exposed to the latest in deep learning through CNNs, RNNs, and word2vec for text mining.