Learning to Classify with Branching Tests: "A decision tree takes as input an object or situation described by a set of properties, and outputs a yes/no decision. Decision trees therefore represent Boolean functions. Functions with a larger range of outputs can also be represented...."
– Artificial Intelligence: A Modern Approach. By Stuart Russell & Peter Norvig. 2002. Section 18.3; page 531.
Random Forest (RF) is an ensemble supervised machine learning technique that was developed by Breiman over a decade ago. Compared with other ensemble techniques, it has proved its superiority. Many researchers, however, believe that there is still room for enhancing and improving its performance accuracy. This explains why, over the past decade, there have been many extensions of RF where each extension employed a variety of techniques and strategies to improve certain aspect(s) of RF. Since it has been proven empirically that ensembles tend to yield better results when there is a significant diversity among the constituent models, the objective of this paper is twofold.
A decision tree is a flowchart-like structure in which each internal node represents a test on a feature (e.g. The paths from root to leaf represent classification rules. Below diagram illustrate the basic flow of decision tree for decision making with labels (Rain(Yes), No Rain(No)). Decision tree is one of the predictive modelling approaches used in statistics, data mining and machine learning. Decision trees are constructed via an algorithmic approach that identifies ways to split a data set based on different conditions.
We demonstrate that the chemical-feature model described in our original paper is distinguishable from the nongeneralizable models introduced by Chuang and Keiser. Furthermore, the chemical-feature model significantly outperforms these models in out-of-sample predictions, justifying the use of chemical featurization from which machine learning models can extract meaningful patterns in the dataset, as originally described. In Ahneman et al. (1), we showed that a random forest (RF) algorithm built using computationally derived chemical descriptors for the components of a Pd-catalyzed C–N cross-coupling reaction (aryl halide, ligand, base, and potentially inhibitory isoxazole additive) could identify predictive and meaningful relationships in a multidimensional chemical dataset comprising 4608 reactions. Chuang and Keiser (2) built alternative models using random barcode features ("straw" models), wherein the chemical descriptors are replaced with random numbers selected from a standard normal distribution. One-hot encoded features, wherein each reagent acts as a categorical descriptor and is marked as absent or present, were also evaluated.
A contextual care protocol is used by a medical practitioner for patient healthcare, given the context or situation that the specified patient is in. This paper proposes a method to build an automated self-adapting protocol which can help make relevant, early decisions for effective healthcare delivery. The hybrid model leverages neural networks and decision trees. The neural network estimates the chances of each disease and each tree in the decision trees represents care protocol for a disease. These trees are subject to change in case of aberrations found by the diagnosticians. These corrections or prediction errors are clustered into similar groups for scalability and review by the experts. The corrections as suggested by the experts are incorporated into the model.
We study heterogeneity in the effect of a mindset intervention on student-level performance through an observational dataset from the National Study of Learning Mindsets (NSLM). Our analysis uses machine learning (ML) to address the following associated problems: assessing treatment group overlap and covariate balance, imputing conditional average treatment effects, and interpreting imputed effects. By comparing several different model families we illustrate the flexibility of both off-the-shelf and purpose-built estimators. We find that the mindset intervention has a positive average effect of 0.26, 95%-CI [0.22, 0.30], and that heterogeneity in the range of [0.1, 0.4] is moderated by school-level achievement level, poverty concentration, urbanicity, and student prior expectations.
RF is based on decision trees. In machine learning decision trees are a technique for creating predictive models. They are called decision trees because the prediction follows several branches of "if… then…" decision splits - similar to the branches of a tree. If we imagine that we start with a sample, which we want to predict a class for, we would start at the bottom of a tree and travel up the trunk until we come to the first split-off branch. This split can be thought of as a feature in machine learning, let's say it would be "age"; we would now make a decision about which branch to follow: "if our sample has an age bigger than 30, continue along the left branch, else continue along the right branch".
Machine Learning is a fast evolving field – but a few things would remain as they were years ago. One such thing is ability to interpret and explain your machine learning models. If you build a model and can not explain it to your business users – it is very unlikely that it will see the light of the day. Can you imagine integrating a model into your product without understanding how it works? Or which features are impacting your final result? In addition to backing from stakeholders, we as data scientists benefit from interpreting our work and improving upon it. The first article of this fast.ai I'm delighted to share part 2 of this series, which primarily deals with how you can intepret a random forest model.
Tree-based ensemble methods, as Random Forests and Gradient Boosted Trees, have been successfully used for regression in many applications and research studies. Furthermore, these methods have been extended in order to deal with uncertainty in the output variable, using for example a quantile loss in Random Forests (Meinshausen, 2006). To the best of our knowledge, no extension has been provided yet for dealing with uncertainties in the input variables, even though such uncertainties are common in practical situations. We propose here such an extension by showing how standard regression trees optimizing a quadratic loss can be adapted and learned while taking into account the uncertainties in the input. By doing so, one no longer assumes that an observation lies into a single region of the regression tree, but rather that it belongs to each region with a certain probability. Experiments conducted on several data sets illustrate the good behavior of the proposed extension.
Ensemble methods are among the state-of-the-art predictive modeling approaches. Applied to modern big data, these methods often require a large number of sub-learners, where the complexity of each learner typically grows with the size of the dataset. This phenomenon results in an increasing demand for storage space, which may be very costly. This problem mostly manifests in a subscriber based environment, where a user-specific ensemble needs to be stored on a personal device with strict storage limitations (such as a cellular device). In this work we introduce a novel method for lossless compression of tree-based ensemble methods, focusing on random forests. Our suggested method is based on probabilistic modeling of the ensemble's trees, followed by model clustering via Bregman divergence. This allows us to find a minimal set of models that provides an accurate description of the trees, and at the same time is small enough to store and maintain. Our compression scheme demonstrates high compression rates on a variety of modern datasets. Importantly, our scheme enables predictions from the compressed format and a perfect reconstruction of the original ensemble. In addition, we introduce a theoretically sound lossy compression scheme, which allows us to control the trade-off between the distortion and the coding rate.
This article provides a comprehensive study of different ways to make speed benchmarks of gradient boosted decision trees (GBDT) algorithm. We show main problems of several straight forward ways to make benchmarks, explain, why a speed benchmark is challenging task and provide a set of reasonable requirements for a benchmark to be fair and useful.