Learning to Classify with Branching Tests: "A decision tree takes as input an object or situation described by a set of properties, and outputs a yes/no decision. Decision trees therefore represent Boolean functions. Functions with a larger range of outputs can also be represented...."
– Artificial Intelligence: A Modern Approach. By Stuart Russell & Peter Norvig. 2002. Section 18.3; page 531.
The decision tree Algorithm belongs to the family of supervised machine learning algorithms. It can be used for both a classification problem as well as for regression problem. The goal of this algorithm is to create a model that predicts the value of a target variable, for which the decision tree uses the tree representation to solve the problem in which the leaf node corresponds to a class label and attributes are represented on the internal node of the tree. It will split our data into two branches High and Normal based on cholesterol, as you can see in the above figure. Let's suppose our new patient has high cholesterol by the above split of our data we cannot say whether Drug B or Drug A will be suitable for the patient.
Check out our gradient descent tutorial. A decision tree is a vital and popular tool for classification and prediction problems in machine learning, statistics, data mining, and machine learning . It describes rules that can be interpreted by humans and applied in a knowledge system such as databases. It classifies cases by commencing at the tree's root and passing through it unto a leaf node. A decision tree uses nodes and leaves to make a decision.
Policy specification is a process by which a human can initialize a robot's behaviour and, in turn, warm-start policy optimization via Reinforcement Learning (RL). While policy specification/design is inherently a collaborative process, modern methods based on Learning from Demonstration or Deep RL lack the model interpretability and accessibility to be classified as such. Current state-of-the-art methods for policy specification rely on black-box models, which are an insufficient means of collaboration for non-expert users: These models provide no means of inspecting policies learnt by the agent and are not focused on creating a usable modality for teaching robot behaviour. In this paper, we propose a novel machine learning framework that enables humans to 1) specify, through natural language, interpretable policies in the form of easy-to-understand decision trees, 2) leverage these policies to warm-start reinforcement learning and 3) outperform baselines that lack our natural language initialization mechanism. We train our approach by collecting a first-of-its-kind corpus mapping free-form natural language policy descriptions to decision tree-based policies. We show that our novel framework translates natural language to decision trees with a 96% and 97% accuracy on a held-out corpus across two domains, respectively. Finally, we validate that policies initialized with natural language commands are able to significantly outperform relevant baselines (p < 0.001) that do not benefit from our natural language-based warm-start technique.
Recent advances have shown how decision trees are apt data structures for concisely representing strategies (or controllers) satisfying various objectives. Moreover, they also make the strategy more explainable. The recent tool dtControl had provided pipelines with tools supporting strategy synthesis for hybrid systems, such as SCOTS and Uppaal Stratego. We present dtControl 2.0, a new version with several fundamentally novel features. Most importantly, the user can now provide domain knowledge to be exploited in the decision tree learning process and can also interactively steer the process based on the dynamically provided information. To this end, we also provide a graphical user interface. It allows for inspection and re-computation of parts of the result, suggesting as well as receiving advice on predicates, and visual simulation of the decision-making process. Besides, we interface model checkers of probabilistic systems, namely Storm and PRISM and provide dedicated support for categorical enumeration-type state variables. Consequently, the controllers are more explainable and smaller.
We aim to mine temporal causal sequences that explain observed events (consequents) in time-series traces. Causal explanations of key events in a time-series have applications in design debugging, anomaly detection, planning, root-cause analysis and many more. We make use of decision trees and interval arithmetic to mine sequences that explain defining events in the time-series. We propose modified decision tree construction metrics to handle the non-determinism introduced by the temporal dimension. The mined sequences are expressed in a readable temporal logic language that is easy to interpret. The application of the proposed methodology is illustrated through various examples.
Bayesian Optimization is a popular tool for tuning algorithms in automatic machine learning (AutoML) systems. Current state-of-the-art methods leverage Random Forests or Gaussian processes to build a surrogate model that predicts algorithm performance given a certain set of hyperparameter settings. In this paper, we propose a new surrogate model based on gradient boosting, where we use quantile regression to provide optimistic estimates of the performance of an unobserved hyperparameter setting, and combine this with a distance metric between unobserved and observed hyperparameter settings to help regulate exploration. We demonstrate empirically that the new method is able to outperform some state-of-the art techniques across a reasonable sized set of classification problems.
Bridge the gap between a high-level understanding of how an algorithm works and knowing the nuts and bolts to tune your models better. This book will give you confidence and skills when developing all the major machine learning models. In Pro Machine Learning Algorithms, you will first develop the algorithm in Excel so that you get a practical understanding of all the levers that can be tuned in a model, before implementing the models in Python/R. You will cover all the major algorithms: supervised and unsupervised learning, which include linear/logistic regression; k-means clustering; PCA; recommender system; decision tree; random forest; GBM; and neural networks. You will also be exposed to the latest in deep learning through CNNs, RNNs, and word2vec for text mining.
This paper introduces the first provably accurate algorithms for differentially private, top-down decision tree learning in the distributed setting (Balcan et al., 2012). We propose DP-TopDown, a general privacy preserving decision tree learning algorithm, and present two distributed implementations. Our first method NoisyCounts naturally extends the single machine algorithm by using the Laplace mechanism. Our second method LocalRNM significantly reduces communication and added noise by performing local optimization at each data holder. We provide the first utility guarantees for differentially private top-down decision tree learning in both the single machine and distributed settings. These guarantees show that the error of the privately-learned decision tree quickly goes to zero provided that the dataset is sufficiently large. Our extensive experiments on real datasets illustrate the trade-offs of privacy, accuracy and generalization when learning private decision trees in the distributed setting.
Artificial intelligence (AI) has been used to advance different fields, such as education, healthcare, and finance. However, the application of AI in the field of project management (PM) has not progressed equally. This paper reports on a systematic review of the published studies used to investigate the application of AI in PM. This systematic review identified relevant papers using Web of Science, Science Direct, and Google Scholar databases. Of the 652 articles found, 58 met the predefined criteria and were included in the review. Included papers were classified per the following dimensions: PM knowledge areas, PM processes, and AI techniques. The results indicated that the application of AI in PM was in its early stages and AI models have not applied for multiple PM processes especially in processes groups of project stakeholder management, project procurements management, and project communication management. However, the most popular PM processes among included papers were project effort prediction and cost estimation, and the most popular AI techniques were support vector machines, neural networks, and genetic algorithms.
Boosting is an ensemble technique that attempts to create strong classifiers from a number of weak classifiers. Unlike many machine learning models which focus on high quality prediction done using single model, boosting algorithms seek to improve the prediction power by training a sequence of weak models, each compensating the weaknesses of its predecessors. Boosting grants power to machine learning models to improve their accuracy of prediction. AdaBoost, short for Adaptive Boosting, is a machine learning algorithm formulated by Yoav Freund and Robert Schapire. AdaBoost technique follows a decision tree model with a depth equal to one.