Collaborating Authors

Association Learning

An Investigation into Mini-Batch Rule Learning Artificial Intelligence

We investigate whether it is possible to learn rule sets efficiently in a network structure with a single hidden layer using iterative refinements over mini-batches of examples. A first rudimentary version shows an acceptable performance on all but one dataset, even though it does not yet reach the performance levels of Ripper.



Unsupervised learning is where only the input data is present and no corresponding output variable is there. Unsupervised learning has a lot of potential ranging anywhere from fraud detection to stock trading. Clustering: A clustering problem is where you want to discover the inherent groupings in the data, such as grouping customers by purchasing behavior. Association: An association rule learning problem is where you want to discover rules that describe a large portion of your data. Association rules mining are used to identify new and interesting insights between different objects in a set, frequent pattern in transactional data or any sort of relational database.

Top 5 data mining technique in Machine Learning (ML)


Data mining is a popular term used by machine learning developers. The technique refers to extracting meaningful information from the massive dataset. For the aspiring data scientists, it is important to be familiar with data mining techniques. Here are the top data mining techniques that are used by Data Science and Machine Learning experts. Association rule learning is a standard rule-based ML technique used to discover the relationship between variables in datasets.

Discovering Reliable Causal Rules Artificial Intelligence

We study the problem of deriving policies, or rules, that when enacted on a complex system, cause a desired outcome. Absent the ability to perform controlled experiments, such rules have to be inferred from past observations of the system's behaviour. This is a challenging problem for two reasons: First, observational effects are often unrepresentative of the underlying causal effect because they are skewed by the presence of confounding factors. Second, naive empirical estimations of a rule's effect have a high variance, and, hence, their maximisation can lead to random results. To address these issues, first we measure the causal effect of a rule from observational data---adjusting for the effect of potential confounders. Importantly, we provide a graphical criteria under which causal rule discovery is possible. Moreover, to discover reliable causal rules from a sample, we propose a conservative and consistent estimator of the causal effect, and derive an efficient and exact algorithm that maximises the estimator. On synthetic data, the proposed estimator converges faster to the ground truth than the naive estimator and recovers relevant causal rules even at small sample sizes. Extensive experiments on a variety of real-world datasets show that the proposed algorithm is efficient and discovers meaningful rules.

Association Rule Learning & APriori Algorithm


Association rule learning is a rule-based machine learning method for discovering interesting relations between variables in large databases. It is intended to identify strong rules discovered in databases using some measures of interestingness. Association Rules find all sets of items (itemsets) that have support greater than the minimum support and then using the large itemsets to generate the desired rules that have confidence greater than the minimum confidence. The lift of a rule is the ratio of the observed support to that expected if X and Y were independent. A typical and widely used example of association rules application is market basket analysis.

Kristen Doute says she's learning about 'unconscious bias' after 'Vanderpump Rules' firing

FOX News

Fox News Flash top entertainment and celebrity headlines are here. Check out what's clicking today in entertainment. Kristen Doute said she is doing some soul-searching after being fired from "Vanderpump Rules" along with castmate Stassi Schroeder for past racially insensitive actions involving former Black cast member Faith Stowers. The 37-year-old spoke about how she's changing and growing as a person on the "Hollywood Raw" podcast with Dax Holt and Adam Glyn. "It was definitely none of my business to take anything to social media [and] essentially send a mob out to this person. It was really just not my place to go there," she said.

Association Learning


Association learning is a rule based machine learning and data mining technique that finds important relations between variables or features in a data set. Unlike conventional association algorithms measuring degrees of similarity, association rule learning identifies hidden correlations in databases by applying some measure of interestingness to generate an association rule for new searches.

SCR-Apriori for Mining `Sets of Contrasting Rules' Machine Learning

--In this paper, we propose an efficient algorithm for mining novel'Set of Contrasting Rules'-pattern (SCR-pattern), which consists of several association rules. This pattern is of high interest due to the guaranteed quality of the rules forming it and its ability to discover useful knowledge. However, SCR-pattern has no efficient mining algorithm. We propose SCR-Apriori algorithm, which results in the same set of SCR-patterns as the state-of-the-art approache, but is less computationally expensive. We also show experimentally that by incorporating the knowledge about the pattern structure into Apriori algorithm, SCR-Apriori can significantly prune the search space of frequent itemsets to be analysed. I NTRODUCTION Association rules learning is a popular technique in data mining [1]. However, it is known that finding rules of high quality is not always an easy task [2]. This issue is even more significant in domains where the reliability of the obtained knowledge is required to be high (for example, in medicine). Also, association rules mining techniques usually generate a huge number of rules that have to be analysed by a human in order to choose meaningful and useful ones [3].

Fast Dimensional Analysis for Root Cause Investigation in Large-Scale Service Environment Machine Learning

Root cause analysis in a large-scale production environment is challenging due to the complexity of services running across global data centers. Due to the distributed nature of a large-scale system, the various hardware, software, and tooling logs are often maintained separately, making it difficult to review the logs jointly for detecting issues. Another challenge in reviewing the logs for identifying issues is the scale - there could easily be millions of entities, each with hundreds of features. In this paper we present a fast dimensional analysis framework that automates the root cause analysis on structured logs with improved scalability. We first explore item-sets, i.e. a group of feature values, that could identify groups of samples with sufficient support for the target failures using the Apriori algorithm and a subsequent improvement, FP-Growth. These algorithms were designed for frequent item-set mining and association rule learning over transactional databases. After applying them on structured logs, we select the item-sets that are most unique to the target failures based on lift. With the use of a large-scale real-time database, we propose pre- and post-processing techniques and parallelism to further speed up the analysis. We have successfully rolled out this approach for root cause investigation purposes in a large-scale infrastructure. We also present the setup and results from multiple production use-cases in this paper.

101 Machine Learning Algorithms for Data Science with Cheat Sheets


The algorithms have been sorted into 9 groups: Anomaly Detection, Association Rule Learning, Classification, Clustering, Dimensional Reduction, Ensemble, Neural Networks, Regression, Regularization. In this post, you'll find 101 machine learning algorithms, including useful infographics to help you know when to use each one (if available). Each of the accordian drop downs are embeddable if you want to take them with you. All you have to do is click the little'embed' button in the lower left hand corner and copy/paste the iframe. All we ask is you link back to this post.