Neuroscience


Human brain stimulated by artificial synaptic device

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An artificial synaptic device has been developed which can mimic the function of nerve cells and synapses that are responsible for memory in human brains. The research team, led by Director Dr Myoung-Jae Lee from the Intelligent Devices and Systems Research Group at DGIST, included joint research teams led by Professor Gyeong-Su Park from Seoul National University; Professor Sung Kyu Park from Chung-ang University; and Professor Hyunsang Hwang from POSTEC. The teams developed a highly reliable, artificial synaptic device with multiple values by structuring tantalum oxide – a trans-metallic material – into two layers of Ta2O5-x and TaO2-x, and by controlling its surface. This electrical synaptic device stimulates the function of synapses in the brain, as the resistance of the tantalum oxide gradually increases or decreases depending on the strength of the electric signals. It has succeeded in overcoming durability limitations of current devices by allowing current control only on one layer of Ta2O5-x.


Brain chip implant could help curb epileptic fits by detecting the 'electrical storm' that occurs

Daily Mail

An electronic chip implanted in the brain could help to prevent epileptic fits, a study suggests. The device, so far tested only in mice, can detect the'electric storm' that occurs in the brain when a seizure starts and release a natural chemical to stop it. The chip, made from plastic and twice as thick as a human hair, could be scaled up and trialled in people within two years. The device, made from plastic and twice as thick as a human hair, detects the'electric storm' occurring in the brain when seizure starts and releases a natural chemical to stop it. Around 600,000 people in Britain have epilepsy and three in ten are unable to control their seizures as anti-epileptic drugs do not work for them.


A new type of neuron lurks in the human brain, and we have no idea what it does

Popular Science

The human brain is one of the most complex structures ever to evolve on this planet, but we're still barely able to understand exactly what sets it apart. We may be a little closer to figuring it out, thanks to a study published Monday in the journal Nature Neuroscience that reports a new type of brain cell--one unique to human beings. It's called the rosehip neuron, and they comprise about 10 to 15 percent of the upper layer of the human neocortex--the portion of the brain responsible for much of our advanced cognition. The purpose of the study was to understand the diversity of the neocortex and see whether humans possess types of neurons that are absent in other animals. "We've never seen anything like it before," says Gábor Tamás, a researcher from the University of Szeged in Hungary and coauthor of the new study.


Scientists discover mysterious new type of human brain cell

USATODAY

The newly-discovered'rosehip' neuron has only been seen in humans so far, potentially explaining why our brains are different from other animals. A link has been sent to your friend's email address. A link has been posted to your Facebook feed. The newly-discovered'rosehip' neuron has only been seen in humans so far, potentially explaining why our brains are different from other animals.


Meet the Rosehip Cell, a New Kind of Human Neuron

WIRED

It's been more than a century since Spanish neuroanatomist Santiago Ramón y Cajal won the Nobel Prize for illustrating the way neurons allow you to walk, talk, think, and be. In the intervening hundred years, modern neuroscience hasn't progressed that much in how it distinguishes one kind of neuron from another. Sure, the microscopes are better, but brain cells are still primarily defined by two labor-intensive characteristics: how they look and how they fire. Which is why neuroscientists around the world are rushing to adopt new, more nuanced ways to characterize neurons. Sequencing technologies, for one, can reveal how cells with the same exact DNA turn their genes on or off in unique ways--and these methods are beginning to reveal that the brain is a more diverse forest of bristling nodes and branching energies than even Ramón y Cajal could have imagined.


Management AI types with machine learning MarkTechPost

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Through the assistance of machine learning, it's possible to create and manage a variety of systems. For the future of development, however, it's important that everyone can have a base knowledge of the management systems that make up artificial intelligence. In this referred article from Forbes, we will discuss some of the main management systems for most modern AI. As part of any machine learning, an artificial neural network is one of the most commonly discussed items regarding AI. This concept dates all the way back to the year 1943 in which two individuals developed a brain model for logic and mathematics.


Rat brain for rent: Smarter AI in hyperscale datacenters

ZDNet

AI is artificial, no doubt. But it isn't very intelligent, which is one reason training requires enormous datasets. What if you could rent an artificial rat brain, or even better, an artificial human brain that could learn much faster? A startup is working to make that happen within 5 years. At last week's Flash Memory Summit I sat down with the founder and CEO of Tachyum, Rado Danilak, to learn more about the company's plans.


Cognition without Cortex

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In mammals this incorporates the cortex, the hippocampus, the claustrum, the amygdala, the basal ganglia, and the olfactory bulb. Convergent evolution results in analogous characters with similar appearances or functions, although these were not present in the last common ancestor of the two lineages. Most species are characterized by a high brain-to-body mass ratio, ecological flexibility, and a complex social life, featuring long-term partnerships and dynamic groups structured by social relationships. The term derives from the Greek word hodos which means'road'. Each layer is constituted by distinctive cell populations with unique connectivity patterns.


A theory of consciousness: computation, algorithm, and neurobiological realization

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

The most enigmatic aspect of consciousness is the fact that it is felt, as a subjective sensation. This particular aspect is explained by the theory proposed here. The theory encompasses both the computation that is presumably involved and the way in which that computation may be realized in the brain's neurobiology. It is assumed that the brain makes an internal estimate of an individual's own evolutionary fitness, which can be shown to produce an irreducible, distinct cause. Communicating components of the fitness estimate (either for external or internal use) requires inverting them. Such inversion can be performed by the thalamocortical feedback loop in the mammalian brain, if that loop is operating in a switched, dual-stage mode. A first (nonconscious) stage produces forward estimates, whereas the second (conscious) stage inverts those estimates. It is argued that inversion produces irreducible, distinct, and spatially localized causes, which are plausibly sensed as the feeling of consciousness.


When in Nature, Google Lens Does What the Human Brain Can't

WIRED

AI-powered visual search tools, like Google Lens and Bing Visual Search, promise a new way to search the world--but most people still type into a search box rather than point their camera at something. We've gotten used to manually searching for things over the past 25 years or so that search engines have been at our fingertips. Also, not all objects are directly in front of us at the time we're searching for information about them. One area where I've found visual search useful is outside, in the natural world. I go for hikes frequently, a form of retreat from the constant digital interactions that fool me into thinking I'm living my "best life" online.