"Cognitive science is the interdisciplinary study of mind and intelligence, embracing philosophy, psychology, artificial intelligence, neuroscience, linguistics, and anthropology. Its intellectual origins are in the mid-1950s when researchers in several fields began to develop theories of mind based on complex representations and computational procedures."
– Paul Thagard. Cognitive Science , in The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
While many companies are attempting to develop AI for various applications, there is a considerable gap between the goals that organizations want to achieve and the reality of the insights that data and programs provide. The ambitions of an organization for using artificial intelligence (AI) and the reality of how such projects play out are vastly different. Emotional intelligence and mindfulness are two essential aspects. The pandemic highlighted this flaw – people's capacity to stay focused and mindful can be compromised in a remote working environment. When AI is utilized in a cyber-attack, such as when someone tries to deploy a chatbot or another adversarial machine learning technology against organizations, this could be a significant issue.
Explicit semantic information in the brain is generated by gradually stripping off the specific context in which the item is embedded. A particularly striking example of such explicit representations are face-specific neurons. Landi et al. report the properties of neurons in a small region of the monkey anterior temporal cortex that respond to the sight of familiar faces. These cells respond to the internal features of familiar faces but not unknown faces. Some of these responses are very highly selective, reliably responding to only one face out of a vast number of other stimuli. These findings will advance our understanding about where and how semantic memories are stored in the brain. Science , abi6671, this issue p.  The question of how the brain recognizes the faces of familiar individuals has been important throughout the history of neuroscience. Cells linking visual processing to person memory have been proposed but not found. Here, we report the discovery of such cells through recordings from an area in the macaque temporal pole identified with functional magnetic resonance imaging. These cells responded to faces that were personally familiar. They responded nonlinearly to stepwise changes in face visibility and detail and holistically to face parts, reflecting key signatures of familiar face recognition. They discriminated between familiar identities, as fast as a general face identity area. The discovery of these cells establishes a new pathway for the fast recognition of familiar individuals. : /lookup/doi/10.1126/science.abi6671
Dr. Rana el Kaliouby is the author of Girl Decoded and a leading expert on technology and empathy and the ethics of AI. This past June, Affectiva, the company she co-founded, was acquired by Smart Eye. In this virtual sit-down, we set out to learn more about what inspires Dr. el Kaliouby and how new innovations will change how we interface with technology and connect and communicate as humans. Q: Dr. el Kaliouby, tell us how you got started on your journey to exploring the role of emotion in today's technology-driven landscape? My education and career pursuits led me to Cambridge and later MIT, which meant I spent a lot of time in front of devices communicating with family back home.
The idea of creating a machine that copies human intelligence is a mainstay in the field of technology. We've already leaped AI as an early 2000s movie to something we take for granted as it sets an alarm for us on our phones. AI is still in its infancy, however, there are a few more ways to get robots to take over the design industry completely. At the same time, AI provides designers with a set of possibilities for making more informed, if not complex, decisions. AI can help designers by bringing them closer to the latest design trends, allowing them to focus on the bigger picture.
Emotional AI is taking artificial intelligence to the next level with devices that can understand human moods and emotions. With devices listening to everything, the concern for privacy is now more than ever. From smartphones to smart home devices and work appliances, the technology around us in day-to-day life is so advanced that it is noting our conversations, which sometimes seems like technology is crossing a line. A common example, in this case, is mobile apps and virtual assistants that can recognize emotions in real-time and adapt to the user's mood. While the logic behind this snooping is that ML software can create more natural conversations with human-like understanding, where can the users draw a line when the audio stored contains sensitive information that one might not want to disclose to anyone?
A company that makes an implantable brain-computer interface (BCI) has been given the go-ahead by the Food and Drug Administration to run a clinical trial with human patients. Synchron plans to start an early feasibility study of its Stentrode implant later this year at Mount Sinai Hospital, New York with six subjects. The company said it will assess the device's "safety and efficacy in patients with severe paralysis." Before such companies can sell BCIs commercially in the US, they need to prove that the devices work and are safe. The FDA will provide guidance for trials of BCI devices for patients with paralysis or amputation during a webinar on Thursday.
FRANKLIN the cuttlefish considered the juicy prawn meat morsel in front of her. As mouth-watering as it looked, she resisted temptation and waited for her favourite meal to become available – live shrimp. Her self-control is impressive and comparable to what we see in chimpanzees and crows. Self-control is a vital cognitive skill that underpins decision-making and future planning. In humans, these abilities are linked to sentience because they are thought to involve conscious experience.
The capabilities of GPT -3 has led to a debate between some as to whether or not GPT-3 and its underlying architecture will enable Artificial General Intelligence (AGI) in the future against those (many being from the school of logic and symbolic AI) who believe that without some form of logic there can be no AGI. The truth of the matter is that we don't know as we don't really fully understand the human brain. With science and engineering we work upon the basis of observation and testing. This section also addresses points raised by Esaú Flores. Gary Grossman in an article entitled Are we entering the AI Twilight Zone between AI and AGI? observed that in February 2020, Geoffrey Hinton, the University of Toronto professor who is a pioneer of Deep Learning, noted: "There are one trillion synapses in a cubic centimeter of the brain. If there is such a thing as general AI, [the system] would probably require one trillion synapses." The human brain has a huge number of synapses. Each of the 1011 (one hundred billion) neurons has on average 7,000 synaptic connections (synapses) to other neurons. It has been estimated that the brain of a three-year-old child has about 1015 synapses (1 quadrillion).
Elon Musk might be well positioned in space travel and electric vehicles, but the world's second-richest person is taking a backseat when it comes to a brain-computer interface (BCI). New York-based Synchron announced Wednesday that it has received approval from the Food and Drug Administration to begin clinical trials of its Stentrode motor neuroprosthesis - a brain implant it is hoped could ultimately be used to cure paralysis. The FDA approved Synchron's Investigational Device Exemption (IDE) application, according to a release, paving the way for an early feasibility study of Stentrode to begin later this year at New York's Mount Sinai Hospital. New York-based Synchron announced Wednesday that it has received FDA approval to begin clinical trials of Stentrode, its brain-computer interface, beating Elon Musk's Neuralink to a crucial benchmark. The study will analyze the safety and efficacy of the device, smaller than a matchstick, in six patients with severe paralysis. Meanwhile, Musk has been touting Neuralink, his brain-implant startup, for several years--most recently showing a video of a monkey with the chip playing Pong using only signals from its brain.