Cognitive Science

Using Uninformed & Informed Search Algorithms to Solve 8-Puzzle (n-Puzzle) in Python


For any such board, the empty space may be legally swapped with any tile horizontally or vertically adjacent to it. Given an initial state of the board, the combinatorial search problem is to find a sequence of moves that transitions this state to the goal state; that is, the configuration with all tiles arranged in ascending order 0,1,…,n 2 1. The search space is the set of all possible states reachable from the initial state. Thus, the total cost of path is equal to the number of moves made from the initial state to the goal state.

7 Startups Giving Artificial Intelligence (AI) Emotions - Nanalyze


Founded in 2012, Israeli startup Beyond Verbal has taken in $10.1 million in 4 rounds of funding to develop a technology that "analyzes emotions from vocal intonations". Like CrowdEmotion, nViso's technology tracks the movement of 43 facial muscles using a simple webcam and then uses AI to interpret your emotions. The Company uses a branch of artificial intelligence called Natural Language Processing (NLP) techniques to capture people's emotions, social concerns, thinking styles, psychology, and even their use of parts of speech. The startup developed a technique to "read" human emotional state called Transdermal Optical Imaging (TOI) using a conventional video camera to extract information from the blood flow underneath the human face.

Interview: Human brain is entirely 'computable' -- AlphaGo developer Hassabis- Nikkei Asian Review


To help in very important areas of the world: climate, disease and other areas of science -- chemistry, biology, materials science -- to advance the world for the benefit of everyone. So, we need to analyze how to build those systems in the right way -- to make them like tools -- and then build other tools, like visualization tools or interpretability tools, to understand how the system is working and making its decisions. Demis Hassabis, left, stands with the world's top Go player Ke Jie, center, and Eric Schmidt, executive chairman of Alphabet, which owns Google and DeepMind, on May 23. (Courtesy of Google) Demis Hassabis, left, stands with the world's top Go player Ke Jie, center, and Eric Schmidt, executive chairman of Alphabet, which owns Google and DeepMind, on May 23.

By merging AI with human intelligence, you can provide the superhuman interactions consumers have come to expect.


Certainly, none of this is a secret: Whether we're talking AI or apps, technology has fundamentally altered the way we interact with companies. For those of us who work to create digital experiences, the challenge then is to strike a meaningful balance between artificial and human intelligence. AI is fantastic at sparking a conversation, but at points of complexity, make it easy for customers to pivot to human interactions. Leverage human intelligence and instantaneous connectivity wherever ambiguity exists.

Tech Metaphors Are Holding Back Brain Research


If memory works the way most neuroscientists think it does--by altering the strength of connections between neurons--storing all that information would be way too energy-intensive, especially if memories are encoded in Shannon information, high fidelity signals encoded in binary. That assumption leads some scientists--mind-body dualists--to argue that we won't learn much by studying the physical brain. Over time, our memories are physically encoded in our brains in spidery networks of neurons--software building new hardware, in a way. That's because the street lamp infrastructure in the two halves of the city remain different, to this day--West Berlin street lamps use bright white mercury bulbs and East Berlin uses tea-stained sodium vapor bulbs.

Introduction to Mathematical Thinking Coursera


School math typically focuses on learning procedures to solve highly stereotyped problems. Professional mathematicians think a certain way to solve real problems, problems that can arise from the everyday world, or from science, or from within mathematics itself. The key to success in school math is to learn to think inside-the-box. In contrast, a key feature of mathematical thinking is thinking outside-the-box – a valuable ability in today's world.


Daily Mail

A study found smart people have fewer genetic mutations that negatively affect intelligence and health, rather than having more mutations that make them smarter. Scientists said the results could be used to guide gene editing - as'fixing' these mutations could make people healthier and smarter at the same time. The researchers used statistical techniques to work out the effect of rare genetic mutations on intelligence. The rare genetic mutations studied by the researchers are thought to have a negative impact on intelligence and health.

Henry Markram Talks Brain Simulation

IEEE Spectrum Robotics Channel

If we succeed in abstracting away the detailed molecular reactions while retaining a detailed, cellular-level resolution, human brain simulation comes much closer. If we could now go further and just bypass billions of years of iterations in biological design, leaving aside all the detailed biological reactions, and mimicking just all the input/output transfer functions of the human brain in some kind of deep learning network, we might be able to achieve brainlike capabilities even earlier. Only now are humans realizing that the human brain, as an organ belonging to an individual, already has superhuman capabilities: Every human brain embodies layers upon layers of knowledge and experience developed by all the other brains, present and past, who have contributed to building our societies, cultures, and physical environment. Furthermore, in the same way that the human brain embodies the physical and cultural world, it also embodies the technologies we create, including any artificial brains we may create.

Emerging Artificial Intelligence (AI) Leaders: Rana el Kaliouby, Affectiva


As the co-founder and CEO of Affectiva, el Kaliouby is on a mission to expand what we mean by "artificial intelligence" and create intelligent machines that understand our emotions. The new AI category el Kaliouby and her team at Affectiva are spearheading is "Emotion AI," defining a new market by pursuing two goals: Allowing machines to adapt to human emotions in real-time and providing insights and analytics so organizations can understand how people engage emotionally in the digital world. Then she read Picard's Affective Computing, published in 1997, and became "super-fascinated by the idea that a computer can read people's emotions. For her dissertation, el Kaliouby used the autism research center's data to train a computer model to recognize accurately and in real-time complex mental states with "an accuracy and speed that are comparable to that of human recognition."

Storytelling with Data: Our Brains Crave Structure Love Oddballs


So you can potentially activate parts of your brain involved in motor control or your sense of touch. When creating your own stories, remember that the brain craves structure and loves oddballs. The brain processes information by taking information it already knows to infer what a new piece of information might be. Now that you have some basic understanding of brain anatomy and neuroscience, try applying the lessons learned to your data stories.