Water Management


Harnessing the Power of Data to Identify Fraudulent Water Usage - Data Matters

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For a country that holds 12 percent of the planet's water supply, Brazil faces significant water management issues. In addition to its commonly known sanitation problems, the country's infrastructure lends itself to distribution issues, including fraudulent use. Fraudulent water use can be particularly hard to track and identify, and often goes unaddressed for significant periods of time – especially in highly populated areas where physically checking people's homes and water meters isn't an option. Instead, companies need to find ways to swiftly identify and eliminate fraudulent water activity which impacts an already scarce supply and costs communities money. To address this challenge, a utilities company from Mato Grosso, Brazil recently worked with a group of data engineers at ScientificCloud. The goal was to develop a solution that could better locate fraudulent water usage by tracking data patterns based on home location and property attributes. As a Sao Paolo-based data science company that develops and deploys machine learning (ML) and artificial intelligence (AI)-powered applications, ScientificCloud understood these problems first hand.


Advanced Robotics: Autonomous Solutions Take on the Dangerous, Dirty, and Dull Work - Infosys

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Much attention has been focused on the potential loss of jobs that robotics and artificial intelligence may bring. However, advancements in robotics technology and their application in new areas can make jobs easier, more pleasant and safer. Exploring opportunities to automate the "dull, dirty and dangerous" work that humans are still doing in the digital age, we see the potential to improve the quality of work, enhance capabilities and reduce employee risks. We may be well into the digital age, but there is no shortage of work that still requires human intervention. Some of these jobs are laborious.


Big data and Artificial Intelligence to Control Algal Blooms

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Toxic algal blooms are a problem that is globally increasing due to nutrients pollution and climate change. Although the use of chemicals may provide temporary relief to the problem, it does not offer a solution. Now an alternative method for chemical algae control is available. Based on the acquisition of big data, artificial intelligence and ultrasound, this novel method can control algal blooms in large water surfaces without disrupting the ecosystem. Toxic blooms of algae are increasing globally in our waterways, causing a variety of health-related issues and environmental degradation.


Unsupervised Detection of Sub-events in Large Scale Disasters

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Social media plays a major role during and after major natural disasters (e.g., hurricanes, large-scale fires, etc.), as people ``on the ground'' post useful information on what is actually happening. Given the large amounts of posts, a major challenge is identifying the information that is useful and actionable. Emergency responders are largely interested in finding out what events are taking place so they can properly plan and deploy resources. In this paper we address the problem of automatically identifying important sub-events (within a large-scale emergency ``event'', such as a hurricane). In particular, we present a novel, unsupervised learning framework to detect sub-events in Tweets for retrospective crisis analysis. We first extract noun-verb pairs and phrases from raw tweets as sub-event candidates. Then, we learn a semantic embedding of extracted noun-verb pairs and phrases, and rank them against a crisis-specific ontology. We filter out noisy and irrelevant information then cluster the noun-verb pairs and phrases so that the top-ranked ones describe the most important sub-events. Through quantitative experiments on two large crisis data sets (Hurricane Harvey and the 2015 Nepal Earthquake), we demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach over the state-of-the-art. Our qualitative evaluation shows better performance compared to our baseline.


Application of artificial intelligence to wastewater treatment: A bibliometric analysis and systematic review of technology, economy, management, and wastewater reuse

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Bibliometric analysis and systematic review of AI applied to wastewater treatment. Wastewater treatment technology, economy, management, and reuse were discussed. Prediction accuracy of AI technologies on pollutant removal ranged 0.64–1.00. Application of AI technology could reduce operational costs by up to 30 %. Combined AI methods could provide higher accuracy and lower error. Wastewater treatment is an important step for pollutant reduction and the promotion of water environment quality.


Analysis of Hydrological and Suspended Sediment Events from Mad River Wastershed using Multivariate Time Series Clustering

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Hydrological storm events are a primary driver for transporting water quality constituents such as turbidity, suspended sediments and nutrients. Analyzing the concentration (C) of these water quality constituents in response to increased streamflow discharge (Q), particularly when monitored at high temporal resolution during a hydrological event, helps to characterize the dynamics and flux of such constituents. A conventional approach to storm event analysis is to reduce the C-Q time series to two-dimensional (2-D) hysteresis loops and analyze these 2-D patterns. While effective and informative to some extent, this hysteresis loop approach has limitations because projecting the C-Q time series onto a 2-D plane obscures detail (e.g., temporal variation) associated with the C-Q relationships. In this paper, we address this issue using a multivariate time series clustering approach. Clustering is applied to sequences of river discharge and suspended sediment data (acquired through turbidity-based monitoring) from six watersheds located in the Lake Champlain Basin in the northeastern United States. While clusters of the hydrological storm events using the multivariate time series approach were found to be correlated to 2-D hysteresis loop classifications and watershed locations, the clusters differed from the 2-D hysteresis classifications. Additionally, using available meteorological data associated with storm events, we examine the characteristics of computational clusters of storm events in the study watersheds and identify the features driving the clustering approach.


How can Big Data enable smart collection systems and protect Wastewater Treatment Plants

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Digitization is essential for delivering these centralized water collection services and supporting efficient urbanization. It allows networks to benefit from online connectivity and management platforms that feed on information (Big Data) and can handle data far more effectively than can human operators. Commonly known as Artificial Intelligence (AI) systems, these revolutionary processes have advanced the way wastewater networks can be managed, helping to protect Wastewater Treatment Plants from damage, maximizing process efficiencies and enabling expanded water reuse projects. Digitizing a city's wastewater networks through AI starts with good data. To understand how such a system is able to provide operational wastewater intelligence, it is important to understand Big Data, AI, Machine Learning and their applications.


Comparison of Deep learning models on time series forecasting : a case study of Dissolved Oxygen Prediction

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Deep learning has achieved impressive prediction performance in the field of sequence learning recently. Dissolved oxygen prediction, as a kind of time-series forecasting, is suitable for this technique. Although many researchers have developed hybrid models or variant models based on deep learning techniques, there is no comprehensive and sound comparison among the deep learning models in this field currently. Plus, most previous studies focused on one-step forecasting by using a small data set. As the convenient access to high-frequency data, this paper compares multi-step deep learning forecasting by using walk-forward validation. Specifically, we test Convolutional Neural Network (CNN), Temporal Convolutional Network (TCN), Long Short-Term Memory (LSTM), Gated Recurrent Unit (GRU), Bidirectional Recurrent Neural Network (BiRNN) based on the real-time data recorded automatically at a fixed observation point in the Yangtze River from 2012 to 2016. By comparing the average accumulated statistical metrics of root mean square error (RMSE), mean absolute error (MAE), and coefficient of determination in each time step, We find for multi-step time series forecasting, the average performance of each time step does not decrease linearly. GRU outperforms other models with significant advantages.


Smart cities

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Streets swamped by muddy water with garbage floating by, roads impassable. As in previous years, Diamniadio Lake City has not escaped the series of floods that affect some cities in Senegal each rainy season. Indeed, this urban centre is preparing to test, thanks to Artificial Intelligence (AI), a new way of managing urban development. "By taking the Digital Technologies Park of Diamniadio as a reference site, we have carried out modelling and worked on water runoff scenarios in order to channel them and solve these flood problems," Bassirou Abdoul Ba, coordinator of the Digital Technologies Park, told Scidev.Net. This park, covering 25 hectares, is the first experimental phase of the "smart city" under construction 35km from Dakar, the Senegalese capital.


Leveraging Big-Data and Deep Learning for the Condition Assessment of Wastewater Pipelines

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During this project period, the automated system was extended to detect fractures (i.e., structural defects that determine the remaining service life of …