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Poker


This New Poker Bot Can Beat Multiple Pros--at Once

#artificialintelligence

The 32-year-old is the only person to have won four World Poker Tour titles and has earned more than $7 million at tournaments. Despite his expertise, he learned something new this spring from an artificial intelligence bot. Elias was helping test new soft ware from researchers at Carnegie Mellon University and Facebook. He and another pro, Chris "Jesus" Ferguson, each played 5,000 hands over the internet in six-way games against five copies of a bot called Pluribus. At the end, the bot was ahead by a good margin.


Facebook develops AI algorithm that learns to play poker on the fly

#artificialintelligence

Facebook researchers have developed a general AI framework called Recursive Belief-based Learning (ReBeL) that they say achieves better-than-human performance in heads-up, no-limit Texas hold'em poker while using less domain knowledge than any prior poker AI. They assert that ReBeL is a step toward developing universal techniques for multi-agent interactions -- in other words, general algorithms that can be deployed in large-scale, multi-agent settings. Potential applications run the gamut from auctions, negotiations, and cybersecurity to self-driving cars and trucks. Combining reinforcement learning with search at AI model training and test time has led to a number of advances. Reinforcement learning is where agents learn to achieve goals by maximizing rewards, while search is the process of navigating from a start to a goal state.


Combining Deep Reinforcement Learning and Search for Imperfect-Information Games

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

The combination of deep reinforcement learning and search at both training and test time is a powerful paradigm that has led to a number of a successes in single-agent settings and perfect-information games, best exemplified by the success of AlphaZero. However, algorithms of this form have been unable to cope with imperfect-information games. This paper presents ReBeL, a general framework for self-play reinforcement learning and search for imperfect-information games. In the simpler setting of perfect-information games, ReBeL reduces to an algorithm similar to AlphaZero. Results show ReBeL leads to low exploitability in benchmark imperfect-information games and achieves superhuman performance in heads-up no-limit Texas hold'em poker, while using far less domain knowledge than any prior poker AI. We also prove that ReBeL converges to a Nash equilibrium in two-player zero-sum games in tabular settings.


Unlocking the Potential of Deep Counterfactual Value Networks

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Deep counterfactual value networks combined with continual resolving provide a way to conduct depth-limited search in imperfect-information games. However, since their introduction in the DeepStack poker AI, deep counterfactual value networks have not seen widespread adoption. In this paper we introduce several improvements to deep counterfactual value networks, as well as counterfactual regret minimization, and analyze the effects of each change. We combined these improvements to create the poker AI Supremus. We show that while a reimplementation of DeepStack loses head-to-head against the strong benchmark agent Slumbot, Supremus successfully beats Slumbot by an extremely large margin and also achieves a lower exploitability than DeepStack against a local best response. Together, these results show that with our key improvements, deep counterfactual value networks can achieve state-of-the-art performance.


On Strategy Stitching in Large Extensive Form Multiplayer Games

Neural Information Processing Systems

Computing a good strategy in a large extensive form game often demands an extraordinary amount of computer memory, necessitating the use of abstraction to reduce the game size. Typically, strategies from abstract games perform better in the real game as the granularity of abstraction is increased. This paper investigates two techniques for stitching a base strategy in a coarse abstraction of the full game tree, to expert strategies in fine abstractions of smaller subtrees. We provide a general framework for creating static experts, an approach that generalizes some previous strategy stitching efforts. In addition, we show that static experts can create strong agents for both 2-player and 3-player Leduc and Limit Texas Hold'em poker, and that a specific class of static experts can be preferred among a number of alternatives.


Facebook AI just beat professional poker players in a major artificial intelligence breakthrough

#artificialintelligence

Facebook has achieved a major milestone in artificial intelligence (AI) thanks to one of its systems beating six professional poker players at no-limit Texas hold'em. The Pluribus AI defeated renowned players including Darren Elias, who holds the record for most World Poker Tour titles. Beating poker pros has been a major challenge for AI researchers, as the best players need to be good at bluffing and unpredictable. "Playing a six-player game rather than head-to-head requires fundamental changes in how the AI develops its playing strategy," said Noam Brown, a research scientist at Facebook AI. "We're elated with its performance and believe some of Pluribus's playing strategies might even change the way pros play the game." The breakthrough comes two years after an AI algorithm developed by Google-owned DeepMind helped a computer beat a human champion at the notoriously complicated board game Go for the first time.


Artificial Intelligence Masters The Game of Poker – What Does That Mean For Humans?

#artificialintelligence

While AI had some success at beating humans at other games such as chess and Go (games that follow predefined rules and aren't random), winning at poker proved to be more challenging because it requires strategy, intuition, and reasoning based on hidden information. Despite the challenges, artificial intelligence can now play--and win--poker. Artificial intelligence systems including DeepStack and Libratus paved the way for Pluribus, the AI that beat five other players in six-player Texas Hold'em, the most popular version of poker. This feat goes beyond games. This achievement means that artificial intelligence can now expand to help solve some of the world's most challenging issues.


Artificial Intelligence Masters The Game of Poker – What Does That Mean For Humans?

#artificialintelligence

While AI had some success at beating humans at other games such as chess and Go (games that follow predefined rules and aren't random), winning at poker proved to be more challenging because it requires strategy, intuition, and reasoning based on hidden information. Despite the challenges, artificial intelligence can now play--and win--poker. Artificial intelligence systems including DeepStack and Libratus paved the way for Pluribus, the AI that beat five other players in six-player Texas Hold'em, the most popular version of poker. This feat goes beyond games. This achievement means that artificial intelligence can now expand to help solve some of the world's most challenging issues.


Artificial Intelligence Masters The Game of Poker – What Does That Mean For Humans?

#artificialintelligence

While AI had some success at beating humans at other games such as chess and Go (games that follow predefined rules and aren't random), winning at poker proved to be more challenging because it requires strategy, intuition, and reasoning based on hidden information. Despite the challenges, artificial intelligence can now play--and win--poker. Artificial Intelligence Masters The Game of Poker – What Does That Mean For Humans? Artificial intelligence systems including DeepStack and Libratus paved the way for Pluribus, the AI that beat five other players in six-player Texas Hold'em, the most popular version of poker. This feat goes beyond games. This achievement means that artificial intelligence can now expand to help solve some of the world's most challenging issues.


Superhuman AI for multiplayer poker

#artificialintelligence

Computer programs have shown superiority over humans in two-player games such as chess, Go, and heads-up, no-limit Texas hold'em poker. However, poker games usually include six players--a much trickier challenge for artificial intelligence than the two-player variant. Brown and Sandholm developed a program, dubbed Pluribus, that learned how to play six-player no-limit Texas hold'em by playing against five copies of itself (see the Perspective by Blair and Saffidine). When pitted against five elite professional poker players, or with five copies of Pluribus playing against one professional, the computer performed significantly better than humans over the course of 10,000 hands of poker. Science, this issue p. 885; see also p. 864