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Why Simple Models Are Often Better


In data science and machine learning, simplicity is an important concept that can have significant impact on model characteristics such as performance and interpretability. Over-engineered solutions tend to adversely affect these characteristics by increasing the likelihood of overfitting, decreasing computational efficiency, and lowering the transparency of the model's output. The latter is particularly important for areas that require a certain degree of interpretability, such as medicine and healthcare, finance, or law. The inability to interpret and trust a model's decision -- and to ensure that this decision is fair and unbiased -- can have serious consequences for individuals whose fate depends on it. This article aims to highlight the importance of giving precedence to simplicity when it comes to implementing a data science or machine learning solution.

Microsoft Is Aggressively Investing In Healthcare AI


Earlier this month, healthcare artificial intelligence (AI) company Paige announced a new partnership with renowned technology giant, Microsoft. Paige describes itself as a company at the forefront of technology and healthcare, especially in the field of cancer diagnostics and pathology. The company explains its mission: "Led by a team of experts in the fields of life sciences, oncology, pathology, technology, machine learning, and healthcare…[we strive] to transform cancer diagnostics. We make it possible not only to provide additional information from digital slides to help pathologists perform their diagnostic work efficiently and confidently, but also to go beyond by extracting novel insights from digital slides that can't be seen by the naked eye. These unique tissue signatures have the potential to help guide treatment decisions and enable the development of novel biomarkers from tissues for diagnostic, pharmaceutical and life sciences companies."

Spectroscopy and Chemometrics Machine-Learning News Weekly #3, 2023 – [:en]NIR Calibration Model[:de]NIR Calibration Model[:it]Modelli di Calibrazione NIR


Get the Spectroscopy and Chemometrics News Weekly in real time on Twitter @ CalibModel and follow us. "Rapid prediction of Yongchuan Xiuya tea quality by using near infrared spectroscopy coupled with chemometric methods" LINK "An improved method for predicting soluble solids content in apples by heterogeneous transfer learning and near-infrared spectroscopy" LINK "Research on construction method and validity mechanism of robust analysis model in snow peach quality detection based on visible-near infrared spectroscopy" LINK "Identification of milk powder brands by visible-near infrared spectroscopy based on principal component analysis and neural networks" LINK "Near Infrared Spectroscopy coupled to Chemometrics for the authentication of donkey milk" LINK "Applied Sciences: Construction and Application of Detection Model for Leucine and Tyrosine Content in Golden Tartary Buckwheat Based on Near Infrared Spectroscopy" LINK "Fast and robust NIRS-based characterization of raw organic waste: using non-linear methods to handle water effects" LINK "Hazelnut quality detection based on deep learning and near-infrared spectroscopy" LINK "Soil Nitrogen Content Detection Based on Near-Infrared Spectroscopy" LINK "Rapid nondestructive detecting of sorghum varieties based on hyperspectral imaging and convolutional neural network" LINK "Detection of Water Content in Lettuce Canopies Based on Hyperspectral Imaging Technology under Outdoor Conditions" LINK "Near-Infrared Spectroscopy Coupled with Chemometrics and Artificial Neural Network Modeling for Prediction of Emulsion Droplet Diameters" LINK "How can cry acoustics associate newborns' distress levels with neurophysiological and behavioral signals?" "How can cry acoustics associate newborns' distress levels with neurophysiological and behavioral signals?" "Agriculture: The Application of Machine Learning Models Based on Leaf Spectral Reflectance for Estimating the Nitrogen Nutrient Index in Maize" LINK "Foods: A Method for Capture and Detection of Crop Airborne Disease Spores Based on Microfluidic Chips and Micro Raman Spectroscopy" LINK "Plants: Pattern Recognition of Varieties of Peach Fruit and Pulp from Their Volatile Components and Metabolic Profile Using HS-SPME-GC/MS Combined with Multivariable Statistical Analysis" LINK "Compositional analysis in sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) NIR spectral techniques based on mean spectra from single seeds" LINK "Nondestructive Techniques for Fresh Produce Quality Analysis: An Overview" LINK "Application of Spectroscopy for Assessing Quality and Safety of Fresh Horticultural Produce" LINK

European Union to aggregate cancer imaging data with artificial intelligence to speed up early diagnosis

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Fox News Flash top headlines are here. Check out what's clicking on The European Union on Monday launched a project to collect and aggregate cancer imaging data in an effort to speed up innovation and early cancer diagnosis using artificial intelligence. The new European Cancer Imaging Initiative will give clinicians, researchers and innovators "easy access to large amounts of cancer imaging data", the European Commission said in a statement. "A cross-border, interoperable, and secure infrastructure that will preserve privacy will speed up innovation in medical research. For example, it will be possible to train new technologies that use artificial intelligence (AI) on a large dataset."

Researchers develop an AI model that can detect future lung cancer risk


The name Sybil has its origins in the oracles of Ancient Greece, also known as sibyls: feminine figures who were relied upon to relay divine knowledge of the unseen and the omnipotent past, present, and future. Now, the name has been excavated from antiquity and bestowed on an artificial intelligence tool for lung cancer risk assessment being developed by researchers at MIT's Abdul Latif Jameel Clinic for Machine Learning in Health, Mass General Cancer Center (MGCC), and Chang Gung Memorial Hospital (CGMH). Lung cancer is the No. 1 deadliest cancer in the world, resulting in 1.7 million deaths worldwide in 2020, killing more people than the next three deadliest cancers combined. "It's the biggest cancer killer because it's relatively common and relatively hard to treat, especially once it has reached an advanced stage," says Florian Fintelmann, MGCC thoracic interventional radiologist and coauthor on the new work. "In this case, it's important to know that if you detect lung cancer early, the long-term outcome is significantly better. Your five-year survival rate is closer to 70 percent, whereas if you detect it when it's advanced, the five-year survival rate is just short of 10 percent."

How Artificial Intelligence Found the Words To Kill Cancer Cells


Cancer is a disease characterized by the abnormal growth and division of cells in the body. Tumors can affect any part of the body and can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous), spreading to other parts of the body through the bloodstream or lymph system. Scientists at the University of California, San Francisco (UCSF) and IBM Research have created a virtual library of thousands of "command sentences" for cells using machine learning. These "sentences" are based on combinations of "words" that direct engineered immune cells to find and continuously eliminate cancer cells. This research, which was recently published in the journal Science, is the first time that advanced computational techniques have been applied to a field that has traditionally progressed through trial-and-error experimentation and the use of pre-existing molecules rather than synthetic ones to engineer cells.

In-home saliva test detects cancer with 90% accuracy


An AI-based home screening test to detect oral and throat cancers from saliva samples is now available in the United States with the hope of transforming oral and throat cancer detection. Based on a technology approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) as a "breakthrough device," the saliva test can detect early symptoms of oral and throat cancer with more than 90 percent accuracy. Due to a lack of effective diagnostic tools, these cancers often go undiagnosed until they have reached an advanced stage, resulting in low survival rates. In a previous study, Maria Soledad Sosa from the Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai and Julio A. Aguirre-Ghiso, now at Albert Einstein College of Medicine, discovered that the ability of cancer cells to remain dormant is controlled by a protein called NR2F1. This receptor protein can enter the cell nucleus and turn numerous genes on or off to activate a program that prevents the cancer cells from proliferating.

NS-HGlio: A generalizable and repeatable HGG segmentation and volumetric measurement AI algorithm for the longitudinal MRI assessment to inform RANO in trials and clinics


Accurate and repeatable measurement of high-grade glioma (HGG) enhancing (Enh.) and T2/FLAIR hyperintensity/edema (Ed.) is required for monitoring treatment response. We aim to develop an HGG volumetric measurement and visualization AI algorithm that is generalizable and repeatable. A single 3D-Convoluted Neural Network, NS-HGlio, to analyze HGG on MRIs using 5-fold cross validation was developed using retrospective (557 MRIs), multicentre (38 sites) and multivendor (32 scanners) dataset divided into training (70%), validation (20%), and testing (10%). Six neuroradiologists created the ground truth (GT). Ed. (WholeLesion/WL) tumor tissue and repeatability testing on 14 subjects from the TCIA MGH-QIN-GBM dataset using volume correlations between timepoints were performed. NS-HGlio is accurate, repeatable, and generalizable.

Deep Learning and Radiomics: A Game-changer for Identifying Glioblastoma and Brain Metastases


According to a recent study from Karl Landsteiner University of Health Sciences (KL Krems), using radiomics and deep learning algorithms can quickly and accurately distinguish between glioblastoma (primary tumors) and brain metastases. The study, which was published in Metabolites, discovered that magnetic resonance-based radiological data of tumor oxygen metabolism provide a solid foundation for discrimination via neural networks. This combination of oxygen metabolic radiomics and AI analysis was discovered to be vastly superior to human expert evaluations in all critical criteria, even when essential oxygen values did not differ significantly between tumor types. The neural networks' ability to make clear distinctions based on these values demonstrates the method's potential. Glioblastoma (GB) and brain metastasis (BM) are the most commonly occurring types of brain tumors in adults.

New study uses AlphaFold and AI to accelerate design of novel drug for liver cancer


New research uses AlphaFold, an artificial intelligence (AI)-powered protein structure database, to accelerate the design and synthesis of a drug to treat hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), the most common type of primary liver cancer. It is the first successful application of AlphaFold to hit identification process in drug discovery. This study by an international team of researchers, published last week in Chemical Science, is led by the University of Toronto's Acceleration Consortium director Alán Aspuru-Guzik, Chemistry Nobel laureate Michael Levitt, and Insilico Medicine founder and CEO Alex Zhavoronkov. AI is revolutionizing drug discovery and development. In 2022, the AlphaFold computer program, developed by Alphabet's DeepMind, predicted protein structures for the whole human genome––a remarkable breakthrough in both AI applications and structural biology.