Alzheimer's Disease

From one brain scan, more information for medical artificial intelligence: System helps machine-learning models glean training information for diagnosing and treating brain conditions


An active new area in medicine involves training deep-learning models to detect structural patterns in brain scans associated with neurological diseases and disorders, such as Alzheimer's disease and multiple sclerosis. But collecting the training data is laborious: All anatomical structures in each scan must be separately outlined or hand-labeled by neurological experts. And, in some cases, such as for rare brain conditions in children, only a few scans may be available in the first place. In a paper presented at the recent Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition, the MIT researchers describe a system that uses a single labeled scan, along with unlabeled scans, to automatically synthesize a massive dataset of distinct training examples. The dataset can be used to better train machine-learning models to find anatomical structures in new scans -- the more training data, the better those predictions.

Unsupervised machine learning to analyse city logistics through Twitter Machine Learning

City Logistics is characterized by multiple stakeholders that often have different views of such a complex system. From a public policy perspective, identifying stakeholders, issues and trends is a daunting challenge, only partially addressed by traditional observation systems. Nowadays, social media is one of the biggest channels of public expression and is often used to communicate opinions and content related to City Logistics. The idea of this research is that analysing social media content could help in understanding the public perception of City logistics. This paper offers a methodology for collecting content from Twitter and implementing Machine Learning techniques (Unsupervised Learning and Natural Language Processing), to perform content and sentiment analysis. The proposed methodology is applied to more than 110 000 tweets containing City Logistics key-terms. Results allowed the building of an Interest Map of concepts and a Sentiment Analysis to determine if City Logistics entries are positive, negative or neutral.

Structured Pruning of Recurrent Neural Networks through Neuron Selection Machine Learning

Recurrent neural networks (RNNs) have recently achieved remarkable successes in a number of applications. However, the huge sizes and computational burden of these models make it difficult for their deployment on edge devices. A practically effective approach is to reduce the overall storage and computation costs of RNNs by network pruning techniques. Despite their successful applications, those pruning methods based on Lasso either produce irregular sparse patterns in weight matrices, which is not helpful in practical speedup. To address these issues, we propose structured pruning method through neuron selection which can reduce the sizes of basic structures of RNNs. More specifically, we introduce two sets of binary random variables, which can be interpreted as gates or switches to the input neurons and the hidden neurons, respectively. We demonstrate that the corresponding optimization problem can be addressed by minimizing the L0 norm of the weight matrix. Finally, experimental results on language modeling and machine reading comprehension tasks have indicated the advantages of the proposed method in comparison with state-of-the-art pruning competitors. In particular, nearly 20 x practical speedup during inference was achieved without losing performance for language model on the Penn TreeBank dataset, indicating the promising performance of the proposed method

ASAC: Active Sensing using Actor-Critic models Machine Learning

Deciding what and when to observe is critical when making observations is costly. In a medical setting where observations can be made sequentially, making these observations (or not) should be an active choice. We refer to this as the active sensing problem. In this paper, we propose a novel deep learning framework, which we call ASAC (Active Sensing using Actor-Critic models) to address this problem. ASAC consists of two networks: a selector network and a predictor network. The selector network uses previously selected observations to determine what should be observed in the future. The predictor network uses the observations selected by the selector network to predict a label, providing feedback to the selector network (well-selected variables should be predictive of the label). The goal of the selector network is then to select variables that balance the cost of observing the selected variables with their predictive power; we wish to preserve the conditional label distribution. During training, we use the actor-critic models to allow the loss of the selector to be "back-propagated" through the sampling process. The selector network "acts" by selecting future observations to make. The predictor network acts as a "critic" by feeding predictive errors for the selected variables back to the selector network. In our experiments, we show that ASAC significantly outperforms state-of-the-arts in two real-world medical datasets.

GANPOP: Generative Adversarial Network Prediction of Optical Properties from Single Snapshot Wide-field Images Machine Learning

We present a deep learning framework for wide-field, content-aware estimation of absorption and scattering coefficients of tissues, called Generative Adversarial Network Prediction of Optical Properties (GANPOP). Spatial frequency domain imaging is used to obtain ground-truth optical properties from in vivo human hands, freshly resected human esophagectomy samples and homogeneous tissue phantoms. Images of objects with either flat-field or structured illumination are paired with registered optical property maps and are used to train conditional generative adversarial networks that estimate optical properties from a single input image. We benchmark this approach by comparing GANPOP to a single-snapshot optical property (SSOP) technique, using a normalized mean absolute error (NMAE) metric. In human gastrointestinal specimens, GANPOP estimates both reduced scattering and absorption coefficients at 660 nm from a single 0.2 /mm spatial frequency illumination image with 58% higher accuracy than SSOP. When applied to both in vivo and ex vivo swine tissues, a GANPOP model trained solely on human specimens and phantoms estimates optical properties with approximately 43% improvement over SSOP, indicating adaptability to sample variety. Moreover, we demonstrate that GANPOP estimates optical properties from flat-field illumination images with similar error to SSOP, which requires structured-illumination. Given a training set that appropriately spans the target domain, GANPOP has the potential to enable rapid and accurate wide-field measurements of optical properties, even from conventional imaging systems with flat-field illumination.

Quantifying Intrinsic Uncertainty in Classification via Deep Dirichlet Mixture Networks Machine Learning

With the widespread success of deep neural networks in science and technology, it is becoming increasingly important to quantify the uncertainty of the predictions produced by deep learning. In this paper, we introduce a new method that attaches an explicit uncertainty statement to the probabilities of classification using deep neural networks. Precisely, we view that the classification probabilities are sampled from an unknown distribution, and we propose to learn this distribution through the Dirichlet mixture that is flexible enough for approximating any continuous distribution on the simplex. We then construct credible intervals from the learned distribution to assess the uncertainty of the classification probabilities. Our approach is easy to implement, computationally efficient, and can be coupled with any deep neural network architecture. Our method leverages the crucial observation that, in many classification applications such as medical diagnosis, more than one class labels are available for each observational unit. We demonstrate the usefulness of our approach through simulations and a real data example.

Deep Learning for Spatio-Temporal Data Mining: A Survey Machine Learning

With the fast development of various positioning techniques such as Global Position System (GPS), mobile devices and remote sensing, spatio-temporal data has become increasingly available nowadays. Mining valuable knowledge from spatio-temporal data is critically important to many real world applications including human mobility understanding, smart transportation, urban planning, public safety, health care and environmental management. As the number, volume and resolution of spatio-temporal datasets increase rapidly, traditional data mining methods, especially statistics based methods for dealing with such data are becoming overwhelmed. Recently, with the advances of deep learning techniques, deep leaning models such as convolutional neural network (CNN) and recurrent neural network (RNN) have enjoyed considerable success in various machine learning tasks due to their powerful hierarchical feature learning ability in both spatial and temporal domains, and have been widely applied in various spatio-temporal data mining (STDM) tasks such as predictive learning, representation learning, anomaly detection and classification. In this paper, we provide a comprehensive survey on recent progress in applying deep learning techniques for STDM. We first categorize the types of spatio-temporal data and briefly introduce the popular deep learning models that are used in STDM. Then a framework is introduced to show a general pipeline of the utilization of deep learning models for STDM. Next we classify existing literatures based on the types of ST data, the data mining tasks, and the deep learning models, followed by the applications of deep learning for STDM in different domains including transportation, climate science, human mobility, location based social network, crime analysis, and neuroscience. Finally, we conclude the limitations of current research and point out future research directions.

On Single Source Robustness in Deep Fusion Models Machine Learning

Algorithms that fuse multiple input sources benefit from both complementary and shared information. Shared information may provide robustness to faulty or noisy inputs, which is indispensable for safety-critical applications like self-driving cars. We investigate learning fusion algorithms that are robust against noise added to a single source. We first demonstrate that robustness against single source noise is not guaranteed in a linear fusion model. Motivated by this discovery, two possible approaches are proposed to increase robustness: a carefully designed loss with corresponding training algorithms for deep fusion models, and a simple convolutional fusion layer that has a structural advantage in dealing with noise. Experimental results show that both training algorithms and our fusion layer make a deep fusion-based 3D object detector robust against noise applied to a single source, while preserving the original performance on clean data.

Interpreting Age Effects of Human Fetal Brain from Spontaneous fMRI using Deep 3D Convolutional Neural Networks Machine Learning

Understanding human fetal neurodevelopment is of great clinical importance as abnormal development is linked to adverse neuropsychiatric outcomes after birth. Recent advances in functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) have provided new insight into development of the human brain before birth, but these studies have predominately focused on brain functional connectivity (i.e. Fisher z-score), which requires manual processing steps for feature extraction from fMRI images. Deep learning approaches (i.e., Convolutional Neural Networks) have achieved remarkable success on learning directly from image data, yet have not been applied on fetal fMRI for understanding fetal neurodevelopment. Here, we bridge this gap by applying a novel application of deep 3D CNN to fetal blood oxygen-level dependence (BOLD) resting-state fMRI data. Specifically, we test a supervised CNN framework as a data-driven approach to isolate variation in fMRI signals that relate to younger v.s. older fetal age groups. Based on the learned CNN, we further perform sensitivity analysis to identify brain regions in which changes in BOLD signal are strongly associated with fetal brain age. The findings demonstrate that deep CNNs are a promising approach for identifying spontaneous functional patterns in fetal brain activity that discriminate age groups. Further, we discovered that regions that most strongly differentiate groups are largely bilateral, share similar distribution in older and younger age groups, and are areas of heightened metabolic activity in early human development.

AI Could Predict Cognitive Decline Leading to Alzheimer's Disease in the Next 5 Years


A team of scientists has successfully trained a new artificial intelligence (AI) algorithm to make accurate predictions regarding cognitive decline leading to Alzheimer's disease. Dr. Mallar Chakravarty, a computational neuroscientist at the Douglas Mental Health University Institute, and his colleagues from the University of Toronto and the Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, designed an algorithm that learns signatures from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), genetics, and clinical data. This specific algorithm can help predict whether an individual's cognitive faculties are likely to deteriorate towards Alzheimer's in the next five years. "At the moment, there are limited ways to treat Alzheimer's and the best evidence we have is for prevention. Our AI methodology could have significant implications as a'doctor's assistant' that would help stream people onto the right pathway for treatment. For example, one could even initiate lifestyle changes that may delay the beginning stages of Alzheimer's or even prevent it altogether," says Chakravarty, an Assistant Professor in McGill University's Department of Psychiatry.