Alzheimer's Disease


Lasers reactivate 'lost' memories in mice with Alzheimer's

New Scientist

They genetically engineered mice with neurons that glow yellow when activated during memory storage, and red when activated during memory recall. But in the Alzheimer's mice, different cells glowed red during recall, suggesting that they were calling up the wrong memories. Using a genetic engineering technique called optogenetics, Denny's team went on to reactivate the lemon-shock memory in the Alzheimer's mice. The next step will be to confirm that the same memory storage and retrieval mechanisms exist in people with Alzheimer's disease, because mouse models do not perfectly reflect the condition in humans, says Martins.


The future of machine learning is here

#artificialintelligence

Closely linked to artificial intelligence (AI), it is helping machines do many things that used to be in the human domain alone. "We use artificial intelligence and machine learning to try to teach computers how to interpret images," Rueckert explains. So Rueckert and his team don't just use machine learning to teach their IT systems to spot lesions. In the Imperial College case, one system tries to make fake scans that are so good the other system thinks they are real.


Brain-training game fails test against regular computer games

New Scientist

The thinking is that this should improve a player's memory, attention, focus and multitasking skills. For this study, Kable and his colleagues recruited 128 young healthy adults for a randomised controlled trial. Those who played Lumosity did show improvements in some cognitive skills, such as attention and focus, but so did those who played the other computer games, and the people who played no games at all. The number of people involved in Kable's study was too small to detect any tiny improvements in performance, so it's possible a small effect was missed.


Radical 'brain mesh' that could make the Matrix a reality

Daily Mail

In tests in mice, the injectable probe produced a minimal, short-lived immune response and the mesh and brain tissue merged with the probe. In tests in mice, the injectable probe produced a minimal, short-lived immune response and the mesh and brain tissue merged with the probe. Dr Charles Lieber, the co-author of the research, says that'the mesh electronics should provide unique opportunities for brain-machine interfaces for tetraplegic patients, deep brain stimulations for the treatment of Parkinson's disease, and neural prosthetics in general' Dr Lieber says that most areas of neuroscience research could benefit from the technology's long-term stability and ability to record signals at the level of a single neuron. Dr Lieber also says that'the mesh electronics should provide unique opportunities for brain-machine interfaces for tetraplegic patients, deep brain stimulations for the treatment of Parkinson's disease, and neural prosthetics in general.'


But Will the Algorithms Have Empathy?

#artificialintelligence

How soon will it be before smart machines perform complex, multifaceted services such as looking out for our health? Every day, we hear about smart machines with new capabilities: computers that can outplay chess masters or are capable of processing natural language to answer increasingly complex questions; new cars that alert us when the driver in front of us hits the brakes, when we drift out of our designated lanes, or when a pedestrian suddenly steps off the curb. But how soon will it be before smart machines perform complex, multifaceted services such as looking out for our health? Applying similar capabilities to detect other illness early and accurately may not be far away.


How being hunter-gatherers taught us to love exercise

Daily Mail

Researchers argue that as humans transitioned from a sedentary, apelike existence to a more physically demanding, hunter-gatherer lifestyle about 2 million years ago, we started carrying out foraging tasks, which may explain the connection between the brain and physical activity. Two University of Arizona researchers who run a research program on exercise and the brain have developed an'adaptive capacity model' for understanding, from an evolutionary neuroscience perspective, how physical activity impacts brain structure and function. The researchers argue that as humans transitioned from a sedentary, apelike existence to a more physically demanding, hunter-gatherer lifestyle about 2 million years ago, we started carrying out foraging tasks, which may explain the connection between the brain and physical activity. Two University of Arizona researchers who run a research program on exercise and the brain have developed an'adaptive capacity model' for understanding, from an evolutionary neuroscience perspective, how physical activity impacts brain structure and function.


Artificial intelligence to generate new cancer drugs on demand

#artificialintelligence

Thursday, 22nd of December Baltimore, MD - Scientists at the Pharmaceutical Artificial Intelligence (pharma.AI) group of Insilico Medicine, Inc, today announced the publication of a seminal paper demonstrating the application of generative adversarial autoencoders (AAEs) to generating new molecular fingerprints on demand. The study represents the proof of concept for applying Generative Adversarial Networks (GANs) to drug discovery. Earlier this year the pharmaceutical artificial intelligence division of Insilico Medicine published several seminal proof of concept papers demonstrating the applications of deep learning to drug discovery, biomarker development and aging research. The paper published in Molecular Pharmaceutics demonstrating the applications of deep neural networks for predicting the therapeutic class of the molecule using the transcriptional response data received the American Chemical Society Editors' Choice Award.


Deep-Learning Networks Rival Human Vision

#artificialintelligence

For most of the past 30 years, computer vision technologies have struggled to help humans with visual tasks, even those as mundane as accurately recognizing faces in photographs. Recent progress in a deep-learning approach known as a convolutional neural network (CNN) is key to the latest strides. Convolutional neural networks do not need to be programmed to recognize specific features in images--for example, the shape and size of an animal's ears. Deep learning for visual tasks is making some of its broadest inroads in medicine, where it can speed experts' interpretation of scans and pathology slides and provide critical information in places that lack professionals trained to read the images--be it for screening, diagnosis, or monitoring of disease progression or response to therapy.


New tool offers snapshots of neuron activity

MIT News

A team of MIT and Stanford University researchers has developed a way to label neurons when they become active, essentially providing a snapshot of their activity at a moment in time. This approach could offer significant new insights into neuron function by offering greater temporal precision than current cell-labeling techniques, which capture activity across time windows of hours or days. Existing tools allow researchers to engineer cells so that when neurons turn on a gene called cfos, which helps cells respond to new information, they also turn on an artificially introduced gene for a fluorescent protein or another tagging molecule. The researchers designed their tool to respond to calcium, because neurons experience an flux of calcium ions every time they fire an electrical impulse.


Study will ask 10,000 New Yorkers to share life's data

Daily Mail

The study leaders aim to recruit 10,000 New Yorkers interested in advancing science by sharing a range of personal information, from cellphone locations and credit-card swipes to blood samples and life-changing events. Researchers hope the results will illuminate the interplay between health, behavior and circumstances, potentially shedding new light on conditions ranging from asthma to Alzheimer's disease. Researchers hope the results will illuminate the interplay between health, behavior and circumstances, potentially shedding new light on conditions ranging from asthma to Alzheimer's disease. Researchers hope the results of The Human Project will illuminate the interplay between health, behavior and circumstances, potentially shedding new light on conditions ranging from asthma to Alzheimer's disease