Immunology


AI 'scientist' bolsters fight against drug-resistant malaria

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London, Jan 18 (PTI) An artificially-intelligent'robot scientist' has helped identify a common toothpaste ingredient that can fight strains of malaria parasite that have grown resistant currently-used drugs. Malaria kills over half a million people each year, predominantly in Africa and south-east Asia. While a number of medicines are used to treat the disease, malaria parasites are growing increasingly resistant to these drugs, raising the spectre of untreatable malaria in the future. The study, published in the journal Scientific Reports, employed the robot scientist'Eve' in a high-throughput screen and discovered that triclosan, an ingredient found in many toothpastes, may help the fight against drug-resistance. When used in toothpaste, triclosan prevents the build-up of plaque bacteria by inhibiting the action of an enzyme known as enoyl reductase (ENR), which is involved in the production of fatty acids.


AI 'scientist' finds that toothpaste ingredient may help fight drug-resistant malaria

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When a mosquito infected with malaria parasites bites someone, it transfers the parasites into their bloodstream via its saliva. These parasites work their way into the liver, where they mature and reproduce. After a few days, the parasites leave the liver and hijack red blood cells, where they continue to multiply, spreading around the body and causing symptoms, including potentially life-threatening complications. Malaria kills over half a million people each year, predominantly in Africa and south-east Asia. While a number of medicines are used to treat the disease, malaria parasites are growing increasingly resistant to these drugs, raising the spectre of untreatable malaria in the future.


How AI is changing the future of healthcare GovInsider

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In 1942, Isaac Asimov attempted to lay out a moral framework for how robots can serve humans. The science fiction writer came up with "three laws of robotics", meant to prevent machines from harming their human creators. This is a concept Eric Horvitz, technical fellow, Artificial Intelligence and Research and head of Microsoft Research's Global Labs, has been studying for decades. In 2014, he set up the'One Hundred Year Study on Artificial Intelligence', which will study the future of AI every five years for a century. The project's first report last year said that "AI-based applications could improve health outcomes and the quality of life for millions of people in the coming years".


Microsoft partners with Adaptive Biotechnologies to 'decode' immune systems with AI

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Microsoft has joined forces with Adaptive Biotechnologies, a Seattle-based biotech company, to map the human immune system, according to a Jan. 4 Microsoft blog post by Peter Lee, PhD, the company's corporate vice president of artificial intelligence and research. Under the partnership, researchers at Microsoft will leverage the company's machine learning and cloud computing capabilities to analyze Adaptive Biotechnologies' high-throughput sequencing and bioinformatics data on T-cell and B-cell receptors, which make up the immune system. From there, the companies will develop a "universal T-cell receptor/antigen map" to detect disease. "Together, we have a goal that is simple to state but also incredibly ambitious: create a universal blood test that reads a person's immune system to detect a wide variety of diseases including infections, cancers and autoimmune disorders in their earliest stage, when they can be most effectively diagnosed and treated," Dr. Lee wrote. The blood test would not only enable researchers to determine an individual's exposure to a particular disease, but also help personalize treatments based on their immunological history, including what diseases they have overcome in the past.


Microsoft and Adaptive Biotechnologies are using AI to decode the immune system

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It might also be able to help doctors diagnose and treat diseases: Microsoft and Adaptive Biotechnologies have teamed up to create an AI tool that they are hoping can decode--or read--the immune system. The companies hope to pair advances in AI and machine learning with recent breakthroughs in biotechnology to map out the immune system and tap into the body's impressive diagnostic system. If you haven't watched this episode of The Magic Schoolbus in a while, the human immune system, when functioning properly, is incredible at diagnosing and treating illness and injury--whether a paper cut, fever, or raging hangover. Microsoft and Adaptive Biotechnologies want to figure out how it works, and hopefully, make it work for them and all of humanity. Per a press release, their goal is to "create a universal blood test that reads a person's immune system to detect a wide variety of diseases including infections, cancers and autoimmune disorders in their earliest stage, when they can be most effectively diagnosed and treated."


Microsoft, Adaptive Biotechnologies will use AI to decode the immune system

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Microsoft and Seattle-based Adaptive Biotechnologies have announced a new partnership which aims to use artificial intelligence in order to decode the immune system and thus better understand, prevent, and treat disease. In essence, the body's immune response is controlled mostly by two types of cells: B-cells (which originate in the bone marrow) and T-cells (which mature in and derive their name from an organ called the thymus). On the surface, each of these has a large number of proteins that act as receptors and are dubbed either BCRs (B-cell receptors) or TCRs (T-cell receptors). This is important to note due to the fact that BCRs are more thoroughly understood than TCRs, with the sequencing of the latter still in its early stages. T-cells and by extension TCRs play quite a big role in the proper function of your acquired immune response, in particular working with a series of proteins which form the major histocompatibility complex (MHC).


Flipboard on Flipboard

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As anyone who has read the news lately knows, artificial intelligence is a lot more than just an under-appreciated Jude Law film. It is the future of farming, it writes better Yelp reviews than you, it makes groovy special effects, it can nose out corruption, it can furnish your home, and even beat you at video games. It might also be able to help doctors diagnose and treat diseases: Microsoft and Adaptive Biotechnologies have teamed up to create an AI tool that they are hoping can decode--or read--the immune system. The companies hope to pair advances in AI and machine learning with recent breakthroughs in biotechnology to map out the immune system and tap into the body's impressive diagnostic system. If you haven't watched this episode of The Magic Schoolbus in a while, the human immune system, when functioning properly, is incredible at diagnosing and treating illness and injury--whether a paper cut, fever, or raging hangover.


Microsoft and Adaptive Biotechnologies announce partnership using AI to decode immune system; diagnose, treat disease - The Official Microsoft Blog

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The human immune system is an astonishing diagnostic system, continuously adapting itself to detect any signal of disease in the body. Essentially, the state of the immune system tells a story about virtually everything affecting a person's health. It may sound like science fiction, but what if we could "read" this story? Our scientific understanding of human health would be fundamentally advanced. And more importantly, this would provide a foundation for a new generation of precise medical diagnostic and treatment options.


Knowledge-Based Avoidance of Drug-Resistant HIV Mutants

AI Magazine

Currently in the United States, it is estimated to infect 3 to 5 million persons, is the leading cause of death in adults from 14 to 35, and is the nation's leading cause of productive years of life lost aggregated over all age groups. HIV is estimated to infect 40 to 50 million persons worldwide (CDC 1997). The high rate of HIV viral mutation both makes development of a vaccine difficult and results in rapid positive selection for drug-resistant mutant strains. Recent multidrug combination therapies are encouraging but in most cases ultimately fail because of the development of drug resistance (O'Brian et al. 1996). A general theory of HIV drug resistance still is not in hand, but a number of specific sequence mutations in the HIV genome have been described in the scientific literature and associated with increased resistance to certain drugs.


Bill Gates: Why Gives Me Hope About the World's Future

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You could argue that our failure to focus on what's getting better suggests that the media generally is missing an enormous story. News by its nature is about a surprise. Which day do you cover malaria deaths being cut in half? Which day do you cover workplace accidents down by a factor of 50 over the 50-year period? It's society doing what it's supposed to do.