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Machine Learning with No-Code

#artificialintelligence

AI is a subdomain of Machine Learning (ML). The focus of AI or ML requires math and programming. No-Code options for creating an AI based solution have increased and are in the mainstream within several Microsoft products. No-Code tools provide a graphical interface that provide the same quality solution as scripting in Python. Machine learning is a technique that uses mathematics and statistics to create a model that can predict unknown values.


AI in Medical Devices: These are the Emerging Industry Application

#artificialintelligence

AI is a boon to the medical and healthcare industry. Right from diagnostics to surgeries and medical equipment, artificial intelligence is supporting the healing processes of many human lives. The medical device sector is a part of the US$3 trillion healthcare industry in the United States, where researchers and manufacturers are incorporating automation through AI. There are several use cases for AI and automation in the medical device industry. Companies are using machine learning to monitor patients using sensors and automating medicine delivery via connected apps, integrating AI-driven platforms in medical scanning devices to improve the clarity of images and screening, and utilizing IoT to improve patient monitoring and clinical outcomes.


Can AI Replace Doctors? Discover 5 Artificial Intelligence Applications in Healthcare

#artificialintelligence

After revolutionizing various industry sectors, the introduction of artificial intelligence in healthcare is transforming how we diagnose and treat critical disorders. A team of experts in the Laboratory for Respiratory Diseases at the Catholic University of Leuven, Belgium, trained an AI-based computer algorithm using good quality data. Dr. Marko Topalovic, a postdoctoral researcher in the team, announced that AI was found to be more consistent and accurate in interpreting respiratory test results and in suggesting diagnoses, as compared to lung specialists. Likewise, Artificial Intelligence Research Centre for Neurological Disorders at the Beijing Tiantan Hospital and a research team from the Capital Medical University developed the BioMind AI system, which correctly diagnosed brain tumor in 87% of 225 cases in about 15 minutes, whereas the results of a team of 15 senior doctors displayed only 66% accuracy. With further improvements and the support of other advanced technologies like machine learning, AI is getting smarter with time.


Insulin dose optimization using an automated artificial intelligence-based decision support system in youths with type 1 diabetes - Nature Medicine

#artificialintelligence

Despite the increasing adoption of insulin pumps and continuous glucose monitoring devices, most people with type 1 diabetes do not achieve their glycemic goals1. This could be related to a lack of expertise or inadequate time for clinicians to analyze complex sensor-augmented pump data. We tested whether frequent insulin dose adjustments guided by an automated artificial intelligence-based decision support system (AI-DSS) is as effective and safe as those guided by physicians in controlling glucose levels. ADVICE4U was a six-month, multicenter, multinational, parallel, randomized controlled, non-inferiority trial in 108 participants with type 1 diabetes, aged 10–21 years and using insulin pump therapy (ClinicalTrials.gov no. NCT03003806). Participants were randomized 1:1 to receive remote insulin dose adjustment every three weeks guided by either an AI-DSS, (AI-DSS arm, n = 54) or by physicians (physician arm, n = 54). The results for the primary efficacy measure—the percentage of time spent within the target glucose range (70–180 mg dl−1 (3.9–10.0 mmol l−1))—in the AI-DSS arm were statistically non-inferior to those in the physician arm (50.2 ± 11.1% versus 51.6 ± 11.3%, respectively, P < 1 × 10−7). The percentage of readings below 54 mg dl−1 (<3.0 mmol l−1) within the AI-DSS arm was statistically non-inferior to that in the physician arm (1.3 ± 1.4% versus 1.0 ± 0.9%, respectively, P < 0.0001). Three severe adverse events related to diabetes (two severe hypoglycemia, one diabetic ketoacidosis) were reported in the physician arm and none in the AI-DSS arm. In conclusion, use of an automated decision support tool for optimizing insulin pump settings was non-inferior to intensive insulin titration provided by physicians from specialized academic diabetes centers. The randomized-controlled trial ADVICE4U demonstrates non-inferiority of an automated AI-based decision support system compared with advice from expert physicians for optimal insulin dosing in youths with type 1 diabetes.


Implanted insulin pump is refilled with magnetic capsules that you swallow

Daily Mail - Science & tech

Most people with diabetes need at least two shots of insulin per day, but to to ease this burden, scientists are working on an implantable robot to administer the medication. A team of Italian researchers recently published a study in the journal Science Robotics that outlines a two-component system called PILLSID, which includes an implantable insulin pump that sits in the abdomen area and ingestible magnetic hormone capsules to refill it. When patients need to reload the pump, they swallow a capsule, which is then pulled through the digestive system by magnets inside the insulin device. The device, roughly the size of a flip phone, catches the capsule with a tractable needle, rotates it into a certain position and then extracts the hormone. The capsule continues to move naturally through the digestive track and eventually leaves the body.


Distributionally Robust Learning

arXiv.org Machine Learning

This monograph develops a comprehensive statistical learning framework that is robust to (distributional) perturbations in the data using Distributionally Robust Optimization (DRO) under the Wasserstein metric. Beginning with fundamental properties of the Wasserstein metric and the DRO formulation, we explore duality to arrive at tractable formulations and develop finite-sample, as well as asymptotic, performance guarantees. We consider a series of learning problems, including (i) distributionally robust linear regression; (ii) distributionally robust regression with group structure in the predictors; (iii) distributionally robust multi-output regression and multiclass classification, (iv) optimal decision making that combines distributionally robust regression with nearest-neighbor estimation; (v) distributionally robust semi-supervised learning, and (vi) distributionally robust reinforcement learning. A tractable DRO relaxation for each problem is being derived, establishing a connection between robustness and regularization, and obtaining bounds on the prediction and estimation errors of the solution. Beyond theory, we include numerical experiments and case studies using synthetic and real data. The real data experiments are all associated with various health informatics problems, an application area which provided the initial impetus for this work.


Improvement of a Prediction Model for Heart Failure Survival through Explainable Artificial Intelligence

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Cardiovascular diseases and their associated disorder of heart failure are one of the major death causes globally, being a priority for doctors to detect and predict its onset and medical consequences. Artificial Intelligence (AI) allows doctors to discover clinical indicators and enhance their diagnosis and treatments. Specifically, explainable AI offers tools to improve the clinical prediction models that experience poor interpretability of their results. This work presents an explainability analysis and evaluation of a prediction model for heart failure survival by using a dataset that comprises 299 patients who suffered heart failure. The model employs a data workflow pipeline able to select the best ensemble tree algorithm as well as the best feature selection technique. Moreover, different post-hoc techniques have been used for the explainability analysis of the model. The paper's main contribution is an explainability-driven approach to select the best prediction model for HF survival based on an accuracy-explainability balance. Therefore, the most balanced explainable prediction model implements an Extra Trees classifier over 5 selected features (follow-up time, serum creatinine, ejection fraction, age and diabetes) out of 12, achieving a balanced-accuracy of 85.1% and 79.5% with cross-validation and new unseen data respectively. The follow-up time is the most influencing feature followed by serum-creatinine and ejection-fraction. The explainable prediction model for HF survival presented in this paper would improve a further adoption of clinical prediction models by providing doctors with intuitions to better understand the reasoning of, usually, black-box AI clinical solutions, and make more reasonable and data-driven decisions.


MOFit: A Framework to reduce Obesity using Machine learning and IoT

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

From the past few years, due to advancements in technologies, the sedentary living style in urban areas is at its peak. This results in individuals getting a victim of obesity at an early age. There are various health impacts of obesity like Diabetes, Heart disease, Blood pressure problems, and many more. Machine learning from the past few years is showing its implications in all expertise like forecasting, healthcare, medical imaging, sentiment analysis, etc. In this work, we aim to provide a framework that uses machine learning algorithms namely, Random Forest, Decision Tree, XGBoost, Extra Trees, and KNN to train models that would help predict obesity levels (Classification), Bodyweight, and fat percentage levels (Regression) using various parameters. We also applied and compared various hyperparameter optimization (HPO) algorithms such as Genetic algorithm, Random Search, Grid Search, Optuna to further improve the accuracy of the models. The website framework contains various other features like making customizable Diet plans, workout plans, and a dashboard to track the progress. The framework is built using the Python Flask. Furthermore, a weighing scale using the Internet of Things (IoT) is also integrated into the framework to track calories and macronutrients from food intake.


Twitter User Representation using Weakly Supervised Graph Embedding

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Social media platforms provide convenient means for users to participate in multiple online activities on various contents and create fast widespread interactions. However, this rapidly growing access has also increased the diverse information, and characterizing user types to understand people's lifestyle decisions shared in social media is challenging. In this paper, we propose a weakly supervised graph embedding based framework for understanding user types. We evaluate the user embedding learned using weak supervision over well-being related tweets from Twitter, focusing on 'Yoga', 'Keto diet'. Experiments on real-world datasets demonstrate that the proposed framework outperforms the baselines for detecting user types. Finally, we illustrate data analysis on different types of users (e.g., practitioner vs. promotional) from our dataset. While we focus on lifestyle-related tweets (i.e., yoga, keto), our method for constructing user representation readily generalizes to other domains.


This ingestible robot delivers insulin to your body without external needles

Engadget

Researchers from Italy have created a robot that could one day allow diabetes patients to get a dose of insulin without any needles. PILLSID involves two separate parts. One component is an internal insulin dispenser that a doctor would surgically implant in your abdomen. The other is a magnetic capsule loaded with the hormone. Anytime you need to refill the dispenser, you take one of the pills, and it travels down your digestive system until it reaches the point where the device is implanted near your small intestine.