Goto

Collaborating Authors

Endocrinology


Eyenuk AI Techlology Selected for Diabetic Eye Testing in Vietnam Supported by The Fred Hollows Foundation

#artificialintelligence

Eyenuk, Inc., a global artificial intelligence (AI) medical technology and services company and the leader in real-world applications for AI Eye Screening, announced that its EyeArt AI system for diabetic eye testing has been chosen for deployment in 4 hospitals in Binh Dinh Province, Vietnam. The project is funded by The Fred Hollows Foundation. "We are excited to implement the EyeArt AI system to expand our capabilities in detection and treatment of diabetic retinopathy. It will help us reach our goal to protect the vision of approximately six million people with diabetes living in Vietnam," said Pham Quoc Anh, Vietnam Country Manager for The Fred Hollows Foundation. "This important project will help us continue the work first started by Professor Fred Hollows 29 years ago, fulfilling his vision to bring equitable eye health for all."


Researchers use AI to predict risk of developing type 2 diabetes

#artificialintelligence

Artificial intelligence could be used to predict who is at risk of developing type 2 diabetes – information that could be used to improve the lives of millions of Canadians. Researchers at the University of Toronto used a machine learning model to analyze health data, collected between 2006 to 2016, of 2.1 million people living in Ontario. They found that they were able to use the model to accurately predict the number of people who would develop type 2 diabetes within a five-year time period. The machine learning model was also able to analyze different factors that would influence whether people were high or low risk to develop the disease. The results of the study were recently published in the journal JAMA Network Open.


AI measures fat around the heart to predict diabetes

#artificialintelligence

A new AI tool that automatically measures the amount of fat around the heart from MRI scans could help predict the risk of developing diabetes and other diseases. Using the new tool, the team led by researchers from Queen Mary University of London was able to show that a larger amount of fat around the heart is associated with significantly greater chances of developing diabetes, regardless of a person's age, sex, and body mass index. The distribution of fat in the body can influence a person's risk of developing various diseases. The commonly used measure of body mass index (BMI) mostly reflects fat accumulation under the skin, rather than around the internal organs. In particular, there are suggestions that fat accumulation around the heart may be a predictor of heart disease, and has been linked to a range of conditions, including atrial fibrillation, diabetes, and coronary artery disease.


What is Machine Learning? A Primer for the Epidemiologist

#artificialintelligence

Machine learning is a branch of computer science that has the potential to transform epidemiologic sciences. Amid a growing focus on "Big Data," it offers epidemiologists new tools to tackle problems for which classical methods are not well-suited. In order to critically evaluate the value of integrating machine learning algorithms and existing methods, however, it is essential to address language and technical barriers between the two fields that can make it difficult for epidemiologists to read and assess machine learning studies. Here, we provide an overview of the concepts and terminology used in machine learning literature, which encompasses a diverse set of tools with goals ranging from prediction to classification to clustering. We provide a brief introduction to 5 common machine learning algorithms and 4 ensemble-based approaches. We then summarize epidemiologic applications of machine learning techniques in the published literature. We recommend approaches to incorporate machine learning in epidemiologic research and discuss opportunities and challenges for integrating machine learning and existing epidemiologic research methods. Machine learning is a branch of computer science that broadly aims to enable computers to "learn" without being directly programmed (1). It has origins in the artificial intelligence movement of the 1950s and emphasizes practical objectives and applications, particularly prediction and optimization. Computers "learn" in machine learning by improving their performance at tasks through "experience" (2, p. xv). In practice, "experience" usually means fitting to data; hence, there is not a clear boundary between machine learning and statistical approaches. Indeed, whether a given methodology is considered "machine learning" or "statistical" often reflects its history as much as genuine differences, and many algorithms (e.g., least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO), stepwise regression) may or may not be considered machine learning depending on who you ask. Still, despite methodological similarities, machine learning is philosophically and practically distinguishable. At the liberty of (considerable) oversimplification, machine learning generally emphasizes predictive accuracy over hypothesis-driven inference, usually focusing on large, high-dimensional (i.e., having many covariates) data sets (3, 4). Regardless of the precise distinction between approaches, in practice, machine learning offers epidemiologists important tools. In particular, a growing focus on "Big Data" emphasizes problems and data sets for which machine learning algorithms excel while more commonly used statistical approaches struggle. This primer provides a basic introduction to machine learning with the aim of providing readers a foundation for critically reading studies based on these methods and a jumping-off point for those interested in using machine learning techniques in epidemiologic research.


Practical Explainable AI: Unlocking the black-box and building trustworthy AI systems

#artificialintelligence

Today, companies are using AI in every aspect of their businesses. The adoption of AI has been very influential especially in the finance and healthcare sectors, where the impact of implementing AI solutions is very significant. In the financial services, AI is playing a very important role to optimize processes ranging from credit decisions to quantitative trading to financial risk management. In healthcare, we are seeing a spike in adoption of conversational bots, automated diagnoses and predicting diseases. This increase in adoption is also causing a cultural shift in our relationship with AI.


Predicting Diabetes On Diagnostic Using Machine Learning

#artificialintelligence

Machine learning is a subfield of computer science where machines are trained to make decisions with the help of data provided without any human interference. For example, if we could teach a computer to tell if a person is lying about something, then the computer might be using machine learning as software. There are huge applications of machine learning such as Face recognition, image classification, stock market prediction, Emotion detection, self-driving cars, etc. More details about all these are covered in the training course videos. Machine learning uses knowledge from mathematics, statistics, computer science, and programming to build and deploy algorithms that can do one of those tasks mentioned above.


AI tool can measure fat around the heart and calculate one's diabetes risk

#artificialintelligence

Accumulation of fat specifically around the heart has long been linked to cardiovascular and metabolic disease but until now there hasn't been a simple way to measure this. A new artificial intelligence tool has been developed that can quantify these fat deposits from regular MRI images. Pericardial adipose tissue (PAT) is a particular collection of fat tissue surrounding the surface of the heart. High levels of PAT, separate to body weight or body mass index, have been linked to increased risk of diabetes and coronary heart disease but the association has remained a hypothesis due to measurement challenges. The best way we can currently measure PAT levels is using a computed tomography (CT) scan.


A Machine Learning Model for Early Detection of Diabetic Foot using Thermogram Images

#artificialintelligence

Diabetes foot ulceration (DFU) and amputation are a cause of significant morbidity. The prevention of DFU may be achieved by the identification of patients at risk of DFU and the institution of preventative measures through education and offloading. Several studies have reported that thermogram images may help to detect an increase in plantar temperature prior to DFU. However, the distribution of plantar temperature may be heterogeneous, making it difficult to quantify and utilize to predict outcomes. We have compared a machine learning-based scoring technique with feature selection and optimization techniques and learning classifiers to several state-of-the-art Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs) on foot thermogram images and propose a robust solution to identify the diabetic foot.


Explainable Deep Learning Methods for Ophthalmic Diagnosis

#artificialintelligence

W. Waterloo, ON, N2L 3G1, Canada Email [email protected] Background: The lack of explanations for the decisions made by deep learning algorithms has hampered their acceptance by the clinical community despite highly accurate results on multiple problems. Attribution methods explaining deep learning models have been tested on medical imaging problems. The performance of various attribution methods has been compared for models trained on standard machine learning datasets but not on medical images. In this study, we performed a comparative analysis to determine the method with the best explanations for retinal OCT diagnosis. Methods: A well-known deep learning model, Inception-v3 was trained to diagnose 3 retinal diseases – choroidal neovascularization (CNV), diabetic macular edema (DME), and drusen. The explanations from 13 different attribution methods were rated by a panel of 14 clinicians for clinical significance.


Chocolate in the morning may help burn fat, study claims

Daily Mail - Science & tech

We all have a craving for chocolate now and again, but not usually when we first wake up. However, a new study has claimed that eating the sugary snack for breakfast could actually have'unexpected benefits' by helping your body burn fat. Researchers in Boston, Massachusetts gave 100 grams of milk chocolate to 19 post-menopausal women within one hour after waking up and one hour before bedtime. Starting the day with chocolate could actually help your body burn fat, scientists at Brigham and Women's Hospital in Boston say That is about the equivalent of two standard-sized Mars bars (58g) – although the researchers used standard milk chocolate containing 18.1g of cocoa. Amazingly, the team discovered that neither morning or night time milk chocolate intake led to weight gain, likely because it acted as an appetite suppressant.