Endocrinology


An End-to-End Data Science Project on Diabetes

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I used Jupyter Notebook as the Integrated Development Environment (IDE). The libraries required are; numpy, pandas, matplotlib, pickle or joblib and scikit-learn. These are pre-installed in the latest version of Anaconda. If you don't have any of these libraries you can pip install them or update conda. The dataset used for this model is the Pima Indians Diabetes dataset which consists of several medical predictor variables and one target variable, Outcome.


Artificial intelligence could help predict future diabetes cases

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WASHINGTON--A type of artificial intelligence called machine learning can help predict which patients will develop diabetes, according to an ENDO 2020 abstract that will be published in a special supplemental section of the Journal of the Endocrine Society. Diabetes is linked to increased risks of severe health problems, including heart disease and cancer. Preventing diabetes is essential to reduce the risk of illness and death. "Currently we do not have sufficient methods for predicting which generally healthy individuals will develop diabetes," said lead author Akihiro Nomura, M.D., Ph.D., of the Kanazawa University Graduate School of Medical Sciences in Kanazawa, Japan. The researchers investigated the use of a type of artificial intelligence called machine learning in diagnosing diabetes.


Tasting Azure Machine Learning : Diabetes Prediction by Auto ML

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Few years ago, I shared first machine learning story about insurance claim prediction. It's based on python code with logistic regression algorithm to build simple classification model as demonstration purpose. In 2020, it should be the year of Automatic Machine Learning (Auto ML) to make machine learning process clean, simple, fast and everyone can taste it, even peoples haven't knowledge in machine learning or data science. Recently, due to job related, I'm helping my customer to explore/evaluate data science and machine learning platform solution. That's surprise me that Azure Machine Learning (AML) is enhanced a lot and really provided an end-to-end solution platform and take care wide ranges of end users, from newbie to expert.


Deep Learning AI Discovers Surprising New Antibiotics

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Imagine you're a fossil hunter. You spend months in the heat of Arizona digging up bones only to find that what you've uncovered is from a previously discovered dinosaur. That's how the search for antibiotics has panned out recently. The relatively few antibiotic hunters out there keep finding the same types of antibiotics. With the rapid rise in drug resistance in many pathogens, new antibiotics are desperately needed.


Deep Learning Approach to Diabetic Retinopathy Detection

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Diabetic retinopathy is one of the most threatening complications of diabetes that leads to permanent blindness if left untreated. One of the essential challenges is early detection, which is very important for treatment success. Unfortunately, the exact identification of the diabetic retinopathy stage is notoriously tricky and requires expert human interpretation of fundus images. Simplification of the detection step is crucial and can help millions of people. Convolutional neural networks (CNN) have been successfully applied in many adjacent subjects, and for diagnosis of diabetic retinopathy itself. However, the high cost of big labeled datasets, as well as inconsistency between different doctors, impede the performance of these methods. In this paper, we propose an automatic deep-learning-based method for stage detection of diabetic retinopathy by single photography of the human fundus. Additionally, we propose the multistage approach to transfer learning, which makes use of similar datasets with different labeling. The presented method can be used as a screening method for early detection of diabetic retinopathy with sensitivity and specificity of 0.99 and is ranked 54 of 2943 competing methods (quadratic weighted kappa score of 0.925466) on APTOS 2019 Blindness Detection Dataset (13000 images).


Digital Collaborator: Augmenting Task Abstraction in Visualization Design with Artificial Intelligence

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

In the task abstraction phase of the visualization design process, including in "design studies", a practitioner maps the observed domain goals to generalizable abstract tasks using visualization theory in order to better understand and address the users needs. We argue that this manual task abstraction process is prone to errors due to designer biases and a lack of domain background and knowledge. Under these circumstances, a collaborator can help validate and provide sanity checks to visualization practitioners during this important task abstraction stage. However, having a human collaborator is not always feasible and may be subject to the same biases and pitfalls. In this paper, we first describe the challenges associated with task abstraction. We then propose a conceptual Digital Collaborator: an artificial intelligence system that aims to help visualization practitioners by augmenting their ability to validate and reason about the output of task abstraction. We also discuss several practical design challenges of designing and implementing such systems


MPC-guided Imitation Learning of Neural Network Policies for the Artificial Pancreas

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Even though model predictive control (MPC) is currently the main algorithm for insulin control in the artificial pancreas (AP), it usually requires complex online optimizations, which are infeasible for resource-constrained medical devices. MPC also typically relies on state estimation, an error-prone process. In this paper, we introduce a novel approach to AP control that uses Imitation Learning to synthesize neural-network insulin policies from MPC-computed demonstrations. Such policies are computationally efficient and, by instrumenting MPC at training time with full state information, they can directly map measurements into optimal therapy decisions, thus bypassing state estimation. We apply Bayesian inference via Monte Carlo Dropout to learn policies, which allows us to quantify prediction uncertainty and thereby derive safer therapy decisions. We show that our control policies trained under a specific patient model readily generalize (in terms of model parameters and disturbance distributions) to patient cohorts, consistently outperforming traditional MPC with state estimation.


This algorithm is fighting antibiotic resistance - and winning

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This molecule, which the researchers decided to call halicin, after the fictional artificial intelligence system from "2001: A Space Odyssey," has been previously investigated as possible diabetes drug. The researchers tested it against dozens of bacterial strains isolated from patients and grown in lab dishes, and found that it was able to kill many that are resistant to treatment, including Clostridium difficile, Acinetobacter baumannii, and Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The drug worked against every species that they tested, with the exception of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, a difficult-to-treat lung pathogen.


EmbPred30: Assessing 30-days Readmission for Diabetic Patients using Categorical Embeddings

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Diabetes is a disease-causing high level of blood sugar. In type 1 Diabetes, body doesn't produce insulin, but if injected from external sources, will use it and in type 2, the body doesn't produce as well as use insulin. It is estimated that 30.3 million people of all ages in the US are suffering from Diabetes as of 2015, out of which 7.2 million are unaware[1]. As of 2016, it is ranked seventh in the list of global causes of mortality. Diabetes can be an underlying cause for many cardiovascular diseases, retinopathy, and nephropathy leading to frequent readmission in the hospital. The Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services(CMS) labeled a 30-day readmission rate as a measure of healthcare quality offered by the hospital in order to provide the best inpatient care and improve the healthcare quality. Hospitals with high readmission rates will be penalized as per the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act(ACA) of 2010[2]. During the recent studies[19], it was observed that a 30-day readmission rate for patients with Diabetes ranges between 14.4%-22.7%,


Digital Ten: Digital health news you need to know (21 February 2020)

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FirstWord MedTech's Digital Ten is a fortnightly round-up of the 10 most read and noteworthy headlines related to digital health, including industry deals, alliances, collaborations, innovations and R&D news. Insulet, the company behind the Omnipod tubeless wearable insulin delivery system, is partnering with Abbott to integrate the latter's Freestyle Libre continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) sensor with its new-generation Omnipod Horizon automated insulin delivery (AID) system onto a digital platform. The companies will make their respective technologies compatible so they can be paired and share CGM and insulin dosing data on a digital platform. Abbott has similar partnerships with Novo Nordisk and Sanofi, in which the CGM tech will be developed to share data with the drug companies' connected insulin pens. Abbott also counts Bigfoot Biomedical and Tandem Diabetes Care among its insulin delivery partners.