Therapeutic Area

Improving clinical trials with machine learning


Machine learning could improve our ability to determine whether a new drug works in the brain, potentially enabling researchers to detect drug effects that would be missed entirely by conventional statistical tests, finds a new UCL study published in Brain. "Current statistical models are too simple. They fail to capture complex biological variations across people, discarding them as mere noise. We suspected this could partly explain why so many drug trials work in simple animals but fail in the complex brains of humans. If so, machine learning capable of modelling the human brain in its full complexity may uncover treatment effects that would otherwise be missed," said the study's lead author, Dr Parashkev Nachev (UCL Institute of Neurology).

The Amazing Ways How Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Is Used In Healthcare


Since heart disease is a primary killer of human beings around the world, it's no surprise that effort and focus from many AI innovators is on heart disease diagnosis and prevention. The current process to determine an individual's risk factor for a heart attack is to look at the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association's (ACC/AHA) list of risk factors that include age, blood pressure and more. However, this is really a simplistic approach and doesn't take into account medications someone might be on, the health of the patient's other biological systems and other factors that could increase odds of a heart ailment. Several research teams, including those at Carnegie Mellon University and a study from Stephen Weng and his associates at University of Nottingham in the United Kingdom, are working toward enhancing machine learning so algorithms will be able to predict (better than humans) who is at risk and when they might be at risk for a heart attack. Preliminary results of the AI algorithms were significantly better at predicting heart attacks than the ACC/AHA guidelines.

Stress can lead to risky decisions

MIT News

Making decisions is not always easy, especially when choosing between two options that have both positive and negative elements, such as deciding between a job with a high salary but long hours, and a lower-paying job that allows for more leisure time. MIT neuroscientists have now discovered that making decisions in this type of situation, known as a cost-benefit conflict, is dramatically affected by chronic stress. In a study of mice, they found that stressed animals were far likelier to choose high-risk, high-payoff options. The researchers also found that impairments of a specific brain circuit underlie this abnormal decision making, and they showed that they could restore normal behavior by manipulating this circuit. If a method for tuning this circuit in humans were developed, it could help patients with disorders such as depression, addiction, and anxiety, which often feature poor decision-making.

RE•WORK Women in AI in Healthcare Dinner


Scientists have developed a new test that can pick out women at high risk of relapsing from breast cancer within 10 years of diagnosis. Their study looked for immune cell'hotspots' in and around tumours, and found that women who had a high number of hotspots were more likely to relapse than those with lower numbers. The new test could help more accurately assess the risk of cancer returning.

Inside the Race to Build a Brain-Machine Interface--and Outpace Evolution


In an ordinary hospital room in Los Angeles, a young woman named Lauren Dickerson waits for her chance to make history. She's 25 years old, a teacher's assistant in a middle school, with warm eyes and computer cables emerging like futuristic dreadlocks from the bandages wrapped around her head. Three days earlier, a neurosurgeon drilled 11 holes through her skull, slid 11 wires the size of spaghetti into her brain, and connected the wires to a bank of computers. Now she's caged in by bed rails, with plastic tubes snaking up her arm and medical monitors tracking her vital signs. She tries not to move.

Augmented reality glasses could soon help return sight to legally blind people


Although this will no doubt change over time as the technology becomes more mature, right now augmented reality (AR) is mainly being used for retail apps and games. Now, we may love shopping and gaming as much as the next person, but a technology as genuinely transformative as AR surely has a few more profoundly life-changing applications hiding up its sleeve. Helping people who are legally blind or have otherwise impaired vision to see again. The project is the work of computer vision scientist Philip Torr and neuroscientist Stephen Hicks, both of whom work at the United Kingdom's University of Oxford. For the past several years, they've been developing smart AR glasses, which pick up on visual weaknesses in a person's eyesight and enhance these details -- allowing individuals to navigate independently, avoid collisions, or see better in dark or low-light conditions.

What Artificial Intelligence Can Really Teach Us – Breathe Publication


Much has been made about the rise of artificial intelligence (A.I.) and the effects it has on our society. So far, lately with its explosion especially throughout the last 5 years -- it has been used a political weapon designed to really scare peers, constituents and even go so far as to generate animosity, fear and ignorance. A.I. is real and will continue to grow as it moves to harness and leverage its own power in numerous industries. We are facing it every single day in our lives within the current smartphone era. The most notable A.I. interaction the mass market had faced?

Researchers Find Pathological Signs Of Alzheimer's In Dolphins, Whose Brains Are Much Like Humans'

International Business Times

A team of scientists in the United Kingdom and the U.S. recently reported the discovery of pathological signs of Alzheimer's disease in dolphins, animals whose brains are similar in many ways to those of humans. This is the first time that these signs – neurofibrillary tangles and two kinds of protein clusters called plaques – have been discovered together in marine mammals. As neuroscience researchers, we believe this discovery has added significance because of the similarities between dolphin brains and human brains. The new finding in dolphins supports the research team's hypothesis that two factors conspire to raise the risk of developing Alzheimer's disease in dolphins. Those factors are: longevity with a long post-fertility life span – that is, a species living, on average, many years after the child-bearing years are over – and insulin signaling.

War in Yemen: In a Devastated Country, One City Is Thriving

Der Spiegel International

No, cholera isn't the worst problem here," says the hospital director. The fatal epidemic spreading across Yemen in the last eight months, which has infected around 800,000 people and claimed over 2,000 lives, "is only the third or fourth most common cause of death here in Marib," says Dr. Mohammed al-Qubati. "Most deaths are caused by landmines." Marib's desert valley, located 172 kilometers (107 miles) east of the capital Sanaa, served for months as the frontline of some of the civil war's fiercest fighting. Starting in 2015, the attacking Houthi militants began laying tens of thousands of land mines on roads, in fields and in gardens.

People who are good at video games are more intelligent

Daily Mail

Two popular video games act like IQ tests, with the most intelligent players gaining the highest scores, research has shown. Both games, League of Legends and Defence of the Ancients 2 (DOTA 2) involve chess-like strategic thinking. Scientists discovered that high levels of skill in both games correlated with having a high IQ. A similar association has been seen between IQ and chess performance. Two popular video games act like IQ tests, with the most intelligent players gaining the highest scores, research has shown.