Likewise in 2007, scientists created a computer program called Chinook that cannot be beat at checkers. In earlier victories, the computer program "memorized" every potential move and mathematically calculated the odds of success for each. By using the "brute force" technique, the computer was able to quickly determine the outcome of every potential move and choosing the one that leads to success. Deep Blue processed 200 million board positions per second in determining its next move.
We describe a variety of projects developed as part of a course in Artificial Intelligence at the University of Minnesota. The projects cover navigation of small mobile robots and learning to accomplish simple tasks, and require a variety of approaches from neural networks to genetic programming to reactive behaviors. The projects have all been implemented on real robots. We discuss how the combination of robotics with Artificial Intelligence adds value to the learning of AI concepts and how the fun of building and programming a robot is a highly motivating force for the learning process. 1
According to the Financial Times, Pablo Picasso once said, "Computers are useless. They can only give you answers." Unfortunately for us, computers may now be asking more questions than they answer. As a result, the possibilities are rather overwhelming, with answers more ambiguous and uncertain than straightforward. Similarly, we might ask ourselves where we draw the line when it comes to what we find ethically acceptable in terms of artificial intelligence (AI) as it relates to composition/creation in the worlds of art, writing, performing arts and music--as well as liberal arts education.
To measure how much students are learning, you need to know what students knew before they started a course. You can't just compare student grades in an adaptive-learning class with those in a traditional class because you might have stronger students in one of them. It was a particular problem to compare different semesters, because students who fail an introductory course in the fall often retake it in the spring, and the spring classes were filled with students who struggle more.