New Finding


UT Astronomer Discovers New Planets – Using Artificial Intelligence

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Thursday afternoon, NASA announced a new discovery from its Kepler space telescope mission – the presence of two new exoplanets. While that alone isn't that remarkable, since Kepler has discovered and confirmed upwards of 2,300 exoplanets in distant solar systems, how scientists found those planets is noteworthy. Andrew Vanderburg, astronomer and NASA Sagan Postdoctoral Fellow at the University of Texas at Austin, who worked on this discovery, says the planet was discovered using artificial intelligence. "Instead of using traditional methods to identify exoplanets, we've incorporated an advanced type of machine learning called a neural network to help identify planets and sort away the bad signals, the false positive signals from the real planets," he says. "It's a form of artificial intelligence, very loosely inspired by the structure of neurons in your brain."


Artificial Intelligence Promising for Breast Cancer Metastases Detection

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A deep learning algorithm can detect metastases in sections of lymph nodes from women with breast cancer; and a deep learning system (DLS) has high sensitivity and specificity for identifying diabetic retinopathy, according to two studies published online Dec. 12 in the Journal of the American Medical Association. Babak Ehteshami Bejnordi, from the Radboud University Medical Center in Nijmegen, Netherlands, and colleagues compared the performance of automated deep learning algorithms for detecting metastases in hematoxylin and eosin-stained tissue sections of lymph nodes of women with breast cancer with pathologists' diagnoses in a diagnostic setting. The researchers found that the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) ranged from 0.556 to 0.994 for the algorithms. The lesion-level, true-positive fraction achieved for the top-performing algorithm was comparable to that of the pathologist without a time constraint at a mean of 0.0125 false-positives per normal whole-slide image. Daniel Shu Wei Ting, M.D., Ph.D., from the Singapore National Eye Center, and colleagues assessed the performance of a DLS for detecting referable diabetic retinopathy and related eye diseases using 494,661 retinal images.


Google just helped NASA find an alien planet thousands of light-years from Earth

Mashable

Thanks to Google and some fancy artificial intelligence, we now know that our solar system is just slightly less unique than we may have thought. Scientists have discovered an eighth planet circling the sunlike star Kepler-90, 2,545 light-years away. This means that our solar system and Kepler 90 are now tied for the most number of known planets within a star system. SEE ALSO: Now you can own NASA's Golden Record on vinyl So yeah, maybe we're not that special after all. The newfound planet, named Kepler-90i, was found using machine learning technology from Google that effectively teach a computer to spot patterns in large datasets.


Artificially intelligent machine becomes one of world's most famous new astronomers with Nasa solar system discovery

The Independent

Nasa researchers have found the first ever solar system that's filled with eight planets like ours, 2,500 lightyears away. But it might be the way it was discovered that's really astounding. It wasn't found by an astronomer, but by an artificially intelligent computer program built by Google. The research has led to hopes that AI can be used across astronomy to identify new planets and other discoveries with vastly increased speed. It's likely to find many more exoplanets from now on, say scientists, filling up solar systems and the universe with previously hidden worlds.


Google researchers use AI to spot distant exoplanets

Engadget

Hunting for exoplanets is a very data-intensive and time-consuming task. Sifting through piles of data to find subtle signs of distant planets takes quite a lot of work, but researchers at Google have been developing a way to use AI to make the process faster and more effective. NASA's Kepler mission spent four years focused on one patch of sky and during that time it collected 14 billion data points from 200,000 stars. Spotting an exoplanet is typically done by observing when a star's light temporarily dims as an exoplanet passes between us and the star. During those years, Kepler took a picture every 30 minutes, so there were a lot of chances for that effect to be observed.


Scientists find a miniature version of our solar system, with eight planets and a sun-like star

Los Angeles Times

Scientists applying artificial intelligence to data from NASA's Kepler Space Telescope have discovered an eighth planet around the star Kepler-90 -- breaking the record for the star with the most exoplanets and, for the first time, tying with our own. The planet Kepler-90i, described at a briefing Thursday and in a paper accepted for publication in the Astronomical Journal, demonstrates for the first time that other stars can host planetary systems as populous as our own solar system. The findings also establish the growing role that neural networks and other machine learning techniques could play in the hunt for more elusive planets outside our own solar neighborhood. "Kepler has already shown us that most stars have planets," said Paul Hertz, director of NASA's Astrophysics Division in Washington. "Today Kepler confirms that stars can have large families of planets just like our solar system."


NASA's Latest Kepler Exoplanet Discovery Fueled by AI

WIRED

Saturn's rings sure are pretty, and Matt Damon's been to Mars, but our eight-planet solar system may not be that special after all. Today, scientists using data from NASA's Kepler spacecraft announced they'd discovered an eighth planet orbiting a star 2,500 light years away. They've named the planet Kepler-90i after the star it orbits, Kepler-90, which is slightly hotter and more massive than our sun. "This discovery of an eighth planet ties Kepler-90 with our own solar system for having the most known planets," said NASA astrophysicist Paul Hertz during a press conference about the discovery. Researchers found the exoplanet by re-sifting through four years of data from a Kepler instrument called a photometer, a machine that measures the brightness of stars.


These deep learning algorithms outperformed a panel of 11 pathologists

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During a 2016 simulation exercise, researchers evaluated the ability of 32 different deep learning algorithms to detect lymph node metastases in patients with breast cancer. Each algorithm's performance was then compared to that of a panel of 11 pathologists with time constraint (WTC). Overall, the team found that seven of the algorithms outperformed the panel of pathologists, publishing an in-depth analysis in JAMA. "To our knowledge, this is the first study that shows that interpretation of pathology images can be performed by deep learning algorithms at an accuracy level that rivals human performance," wrote lead author Babak Ehteshami Bejnordi, MS, Radboud University Medical Center in Nijmegen, the Netherlands, and colleagues. The simulation took place during the Cancer Metastases in Lymph Nodes Challenge 2016 (CAMELYON16) in the Netherlands.


New research highlights the unlocked potential of the human brain

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Global technology company Huawei has launched a study on the similarities between the human brain and Artificial Intelligence, which reveals that the average European is unaware of 99.74% of the actual decisions they make every day, showing how hard our brain works without us having to consciously engage it. It is commonly accepted that the human brain makes approximately 35,000 decisions a day; however, the new research, polling 10,000 Europeans, reveals that we are aware of just 0.26% of these decisions with respondents on average believing they make only 92 decisions per day. Walter Ji, President, Huawei Western Europe Consumer Business Group comments, "The research shows how human intelligence works just like Artificial Intelligence, operating in the background to empower us in everything we do. While revealing a significant gap between the number of decisions we believe we make every day and the actual number we make, the results also shed light on other discrepancies between how we think we spend our time, and how we actually spend it." The research also revealed how people would like their smartphones to help with decisions and make their lives easier, with 47% saying they would like to be presented with creative ways to use up the food that's in their fridge, and 43% saying they would like automatic notifications about travel.


Secrets of Great Pyramid of Giza to be revealed by a robot

Daily Mail

The 4,500-year-old secrets of the Great Pyramid of Giza's maze of hidden chambers are set to be revealed by an inflatable robot. Researchers are building a blimp-like probe that enters ancient monuments via a 3.5-centimetre (1.4-inch) 'keyhole' drilled through a wall. Once inflated inside the chamber, the drone flies like a blimp to explore inaccessible areas with minimal damage to artefacts or structures hidden within. Last month, a mysterious 30-metre (100ft) void nestled above the pyramid's Grand Gallery deep within the monument was discovered by an international team of researchers. The 4,500-year-old secrets of the Great Pyramid of Giza's hidden chambers are set to be revealed by an inflatable robot (artist's impression).