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These Algorithms Look at X-Rays--and Somehow Detect Your Race

WIRED

Millions of dollars are being spent to develop artificial intelligence software that reads x-rays and other medical scans in hopes it can spot things doctors look for but sometimes miss, such as lung cancers. A new study reports that these algorithms can also see something doctors don't look for on such scans: a patient's race. The study authors and other medical AI experts say the results make it more crucial than ever to check that health algorithms perform fairly on people with different racial identities. Complicating that task: The authors themselves aren't sure what cues the algorithms they created use to predict a person's race. Evidence that algorithms can read race from a person's medical scans emerged from tests on five types of imagery used in radiology research, including chest and hand x-rays and mammograms.


Automated Morphometric Analysis of the Hip Joint on MRI from the German National Cohort Study

#artificialintelligence

To develop and validate an automated morphometric analysis framework for the quantitative analysis of geometric hip joint parameters in MR images from the German National Cohort (GNC) study. A secondary analysis on 40 participants (mean age, 51 years; age range, 30–67 years; 25 women) from the prospective GNC MRI study (2015–2016) was performed. Based on a proton density–weighted three-dimensional fast spin-echo sequence, a morphometric analysis approach was developed, including deep learning based landmark localization, bone segmentation of the femora and pelvis, and a shape model for annotation transfer. The centrum-collum-diaphyseal, center-edge (CE), three alpha angles, head-neck offset (HNO), and HNO ratio along with the acetabular depth, inclination, and anteversion were derived. Quantitative validation was provided by comparison with average manual assessments of radiologists in a cross-validation format. High agreement in mean Dice similarity coefficients was achieved (average of 97.52% 0.46 [standard deviation]). The subsequent morphometric analysis produced results with low mean MAD values, with the highest values of 3.34 (alpha 03:00 o'clock position) and 0.87 mm (HNO) and ICC values ranging between 0.288 (HNO ratio) and 0.858 (CE) compared with manual assessments. These values were in line with interreader agreements, which at most had MAD values of 4.02 (alpha 12:00 o'clock position) and 1.07 mm (HNO) and ICC values ranging between 0.218 (HNO ratio) and 0.777 (CE). Automatic extraction of geometric hip parameters from MRI is feasible using a morphometric analysis approach with deep learning.


Small company beats Elon Musk's Neuralink in race to test brain chips in humans

#artificialintelligence

A small company developing an implantable brain computer interface to help treat conditions like paralysis has received the go-ahead from the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to kick off clinical trials of its flagship device later this year. New York-based Synchron announced Wednesday it has received FDA approval to begin an early feasibility study of its Stentrode implant later this year at Mount Sinai Hospital with six human subjects. The study will examine the safety and efficacy of its motor neuroprosthesis in patients with severe paralysis, with the hopes the device will allow them to use brain data to "control digital devices and achieve improvements in functional independence." "Patients begin using the device at home soon after implantation and may wirelessly control external devices by thinking about moving their limbs. The system is designed to facilitate better communication and functional independence for patients by enabling daily tasks like texting, emailing, online commerce and accessing telemedicine," the company said in a release.


ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE, A TRANSFORMATIONAL FORCE FOR THE HEALTHCARE INDUSTRY

#artificialintelligence

Artificial Intelligence is transmuting the system and methods of the healthcare industries. Artificial Intelligence and healthcare were found together over half a century. The healthcare industries use Natural Language Processes to categorize certain data patterns. Artificial Intelligence can be used in clinical trials, to hasten the searches and validation of medical coding. This can help reduce the time to start, improve and accomplish clinical training.


Artificial Intelligence, a Transformational Force for the Healthcare Industry

#artificialintelligence

Artificial Intelligence is transmuting the system and methods of the healthcare industries. Artificial Intelligence and healthcare were found together over half a century. The healthcare industries use Natural Language Processes to categorize certain data patterns. Artificial Intelligence can be used in clinical trials, to hasten the searches and validation of medical coding. This can help reduce the time to start, improve and accomplish clinical training.


Is AI the Future of Clinical Trials? - Digital Health Central

#artificialintelligence

Clinical Trials are the mandatory path for developing and bringing a new drug or vaccine to the market. Unfortunately, according to a study conducted by MIT, 86 percent of the drugs will fail during this process. This very high failure rate not only has consequences on the Pharmaceutical companies' bottom line, but it precludes potentially safe and efficacious drugs from reaching patients that could benefit from them. Recruitment is one of the main bottlenecks, is time-consuming, and very expensive. According to Chunhua Weng from Columbia University (New York), "Recruitment is the number one barrier to clinical research."


The willingness to try new foods is sexually desirable, study claims

Daily Mail - Science & tech

If you're hoping to be successful on a dinner date, be more adventurous when choosing from the restaurant menu, a new study suggests. Researchers in Pennsylvania have found that people who are open to try new foods are perceived as more sexually desirable and less sexually restricted. Meanwhile, a reluctance to try new foods – known as'food neophobia' – and sticking to the safe option on the menu is perceived as something of a turn-off. A willingness to engage in trying something new at the dining table could be a'cue' for a willingness to have an intimate experience with someone new as well, the experts suggest. Interestingly, this pattern is specific to willingness to try new foods, not general willingness to try other new things, like hobbies, music or TV shows, they report.


A Guide to Analyzing Experimental Data

#artificialintelligence

Have you ever run an experimental study, or performed some A/B testing? If so, you should be familiar with the pre-analysis panic: how can you make the data reveal whether your experiment has worked? Every day -- in economics, public policy, marketing, and business analytics -- we face the challenges that come from running experiments and analyzing what comes out of them. As researchers -- who struggle with a clean and efficient experimental workflow ourselves -- we have decided to share with you a practical guide, complete with all the steps you need to follow when you want to analyze experimental data. We cannot promise that the journey will be short, but we assure you it will be fun!


FDA clears Synchron's brain-computer interface device for human trials

Engadget

A company that makes an implantable brain-computer interface (BCI) has been given the go-ahead by the Food and Drug Administration to run a clinical trial with human patients. Synchron plans to start an early feasibility study of its Stentrode implant later this year at Mount Sinai Hospital, New York with six subjects. The company said it will assess the device's "safety and efficacy in patients with severe paralysis." Before such companies can sell BCIs commercially in the US, they need to prove that the devices work and are safe. The FDA will provide guidance for trials of BCI devices for patients with paralysis or amputation during a webinar on Thursday.


New York company gets jump on Elon Musk's Neuralink with brain-computer interface in clinical trials

Daily Mail - Science & tech

Elon Musk might be well positioned in space travel and electric vehicles, but the world's second-richest person is taking a backseat when it comes to a brain-computer interface (BCI). New York-based Synchron announced Wednesday that it has received approval from the Food and Drug Administration to begin clinical trials of its Stentrode motor neuroprosthesis - a brain implant it is hoped could ultimately be used to cure paralysis. The FDA approved Synchron's Investigational Device Exemption (IDE) application, according to a release, paving the way for an early feasibility study of Stentrode to begin later this year at New York's Mount Sinai Hospital. New York-based Synchron announced Wednesday that it has received FDA approval to begin clinical trials of Stentrode, its brain-computer interface, beating Elon Musk's Neuralink to a crucial benchmark. The study will analyze the safety and efficacy of the device, smaller than a matchstick, in six patients with severe paralysis. Meanwhile, Musk has been touting Neuralink, his brain-implant startup, for several years--most recently showing a video of a monkey with the chip playing Pong using only signals from its brain.