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Research Report

Combining News Media and AI to Rapidly Identify Flooded Buildings


Artificial intelligence (AI) has sped up the process of detecting flooded buildings immediately after a large-scale flood, allowing emergency personnel to direct their efforts efficiently. Now, a research group from Tohoku University has created a machine learning (ML) model that uses news media photos to identify flooded buildings accurately within 24 hours of the disaster. Their research was published in the journal Remote Sensing on April 5, 2021. "Our model demonstrates how the rapid reporting of news media can speed up and increase the accuracy of damage mapping activities, accelerating disaster relief and response decisions, said Shunichi Koshimura of Tohoku University's International Research Institute of Disaster Science and co-author of the study. ML and deep learning algorithms are tailored to classify objects through image analysis.

Living in busy city doesn't increase chances of catching Covid, says Iran contact-tracing app data

Daily Mail - Science & tech

Living in a busy city doesn't increase the chance of getting Covid-19, but overcrowding does, a new study reveals. AC-19, which was withdrawn from Google's app store last year over alleged concerns of government spying, tracks positive cases and deaths by geographic location. After investigating the link between density and virus transmission in the city, the researchers found that'density alone cannot be considered a risk factor'. The experts stress the difference between high urban density – a high number of people inhabiting an urbanised area – and overcrowding. The right figure shows the state of pandemic spread at the city level and the left one depicts the status at the national level.

AI Is Not Actually an Existential Threat to Humanity, Scientists Say


We encounter artificial intelligence (AI) every day. AI describes computer systems that are able to perform tasks that normally require human intelligence. When you search something on the internet, the top results you see are decided by AI. Any recommendations you get from your favorite shopping or streaming websites will also be based on an AI algorithm. These algorithms use your browser history to find things you might be interested in.

Why is AI mostly presented as female in pop culture and demos?


With the proliferation of female robots such as Sophia and the popularity of female virtual assistants such as Siri (Apple), Alexa (Amazon), and Cortana (Microsoft), artificial intelligence seems to have a gender issue. This gender imbalance in AI is a pervasive trend that has drawn sharp criticism in the media (even Unesco warned against the dangers of this practice) because it could reinforce stereotypes about women being objects. But why is femininity injected in artificial intelligent objects? If we want to curb the massive use of female gendering in AI, we need to better understand the deep roots of this phenomenon. In an article published in the journal Psychology & Marketing, we argue that research on what makes people human can provide a new perspective into why feminization is systematically used in AI.

Artificial Intelligence (AI) in Pharmaceutical Market Report 2021-2031


Forecasts by Application (Drug Discovery, Precision Medicine, Medical Imaging & Diagnostics, Research), by Technology (Machine Learning, Other Technologies), by Offering (Hardware, Software, Services), by Deployment (Cloud, On-Premises) AND Regional and Leading National Market Analysis PLUS Analysis of Leading AI Companies AND COVID-19 Recovery ScenariosNew York, April 15, 2021 (GLOBE NEWSWIRE) -- announces the release of the report "Artificial Intelligence (AI) in Pharmaceutical Market Report 2021-2031" - How Adoption of Artificial Intelligence Impacting Pharmaceutical Industry? The global pharmaceuticals industry is in the throes of transition, both clinical trials and regulatory approvals have been challenged by the proliferation of specialized drugs catering to smaller patient groups. In order to boost results in drug discovery, clinical trials, and research and development, the pharmaceutical and life sciences companies are switching to robotic process control, artificial intelligence and machine learning. All these factors are anticipated to propel demand for artificial intelligence in pharmaceutical across the globe. Artificial Intelligence Anticipated to Revolutionize Several Aspects of Pharmaceutical Industry The way drugs are made, prescribed and ingested today will be standardized by artificial intelligence. Many facets of the pharmaceuticals and life sciences industry will also be revolutionized but will not heal sickness or replace physicians. Understanding the main aim of artificial intelligence, which is to improve human capability and accomplishment instead of challenging it, would dispel much of the technology’s concerns and put out its excellent ability to serve humanity. Which Factors are Fueling AI in Pharmaceuticals Industry Growth? . Growing Complexity of Modern Pharmacology . Growing Demand for Viable Therapeutic Candidates . Improves Overall R&D Productivity . Concerns Associated with Rising Capital Requirements in Drug Discovery . Increasing Awareness Related to Artificial Intelligence Among Pharmaceutical Manufacturers Which Factors are Restraining Growth? . Lack of Skilled Professionals . Limited Availability of Datasets UNIQUE COVID-19 VARIATIONS- only available in this Visiongain report are dedicated analysis of 4 different rebound scenarios of how the market will develop - no matter how COVID-19 affects the economy. To access the data contained in this document please email How do prominent players strengthen their position throughout the world? You must read this newly updated report if you are involved in this sector. The report from Visiongain shows you potential revenues up to 2031, evaluate information, trends, opportunities and business outlooks. Discover how to stay ahead Our 350+ page report provides 500+ tables and charts/graphs. Read on to discover the most lucrative areas in the industry and the future market prospects. Our new study lets you assess forecasted sales at overall world market and regional level. See financial results, trends, opportunities, and revenue predictions. Much opportunity remains in this growing AI in Pharmaceuticals Market. See how to exploit the opportunities. Forecasts to 2031 and other analyses reveal the commercial prospects . In addition to revenue forecasting to 2031, our new study provides you with recent results, growth rates, and market shares. . You find original analyses, with business outlooks and developments. . Discover qualitative analyses (including market dynamics, drivers, opportunities, restraints and challenges), SWOT Analysis, PEST Analysis, Porter’s Analysis, product profiles and commercial developments. Discover sales predictions for the world market and submarkets Application . Drug Discovery . Precision Medicine . Medical Imaging & Diagnostics . Research Technology . Machine Learning . Other Technologies Offering . Hardware . Software . Services Deployment . Cloud . On-Premises In addition to the revenue predictions for the overall world market and segments, you will also find revenue forecasts for 5 regional and 13 leading national markets: By Region (Segmental Breakdown for All the Regions) . North America - U.S. - Canada . Europe - Germany - France - UK - Italy - Spain - Rest of Europe . Asia Pacific - China - Japan - India - Rest of Asia Pacific . RoW Need industry data? Please contact us today. Leading companies and the potential for market growth Overall world revenue for AI in Pharmaceuticals Market will surpass $xx billion in 2021, our work calculates. We predict strong revenue growth through to 2031. Our work identifies which organizations hold the greatest potential. Discover their capabilities, progress, and commercial prospects, helping you stay ahead. Prospects for established firms and those seeking to enter the market- including company profiles for 16 of the major companies involved in the AI in Pharmaceuticals Market. Some of the companies profiled in this report include are Microsoft Corporation, NVIDIA Corporation, IBM Corporation, Alphabet Inc., Atomwise, Inc., Deep Genomics, Cloud Pharmaceuticals, Inc., Insilico Medicine, BenevolentAI, Exscientia, Biosymetrics, Euretos, Insitro, Cyclica, Biovista, and OWKIN, INC. Key Questions Answered by this Report . What is the current size of the overall global AI in Pharmaceuticals market? How much will this market be worth from 2021 to 2031? . What are the main drivers and restraints that will shape the overall AI in Pharmaceuticals market over the next ten years? . What are the main segments within the overall AI in Pharmaceuticals market? How much will each of these segments be worth for the period 2021 to 2031? How will the composition of the market change during that time, and why? . What factors will affect that industry and market over the next ten years? . What are the largest national markets for the world AI in Pharmaceuticals? What is their current status and how will they develop over the next ten years? What are their revenue potentials to 2031? . How will market shares of the leading national markets change by 2031, and which geographical region will lead the market in 2031? . Which are the leading companies and what are their activities, results, developments, and prospects? . What are the main trends that will affect the world AI in Pharmaceuticals market between 2021 and 2031? . What are the main strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats for the market? . How will the global AI in Pharmaceuticals market evolve over the forecasted period, 2021 to 2031? . How will market shares of prominent national markets change from 2021, and which countries will lead the market in 2031, achieving highest revenues and fastest growth? Read the full report: ReportlinkerReportLinker is an award-winning market research solution. Reportlinker finds and organizes the latest industry data so you get all the market research you need - instantly, in one place.__________________________ CONTACT: Clare: US: (339)-368-6001 Intl: +1 339-368-6001

Comment on "Circadian rhythms in the absence of the clock gene Bmal1"


To better understand these surprising results, we reanalyzed the associated data. We were unable to reproduce the original findings, nor could we identify reliably cycling genes. We conclude that there is insufficient evidence to support circadian transcriptional rhythms in the absence of Bmal1. Recently, Ray et al. (1) reported transcriptional rhythmicity in mouse tissues lacking BMAL1. BMAL1 is a core component of the circadian molecular oscillator (2) whose deletion is associated with loss of physiological and molecular rhythms (3).

SARS-CoV-2 within-host diversity and transmission


A year into the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 pandemic, we are experiencing waves of new variants emerging. Some of these variants have worrying functional implications, such as increased transmissibility or antibody treatment escape. Lythgoe et al. have undertaken in-depth sequencing of more than 1000 hospital patients' isolates to find out how the virus is mutating within individuals. Overall, there seem to be consistent and reproducible patterns of within-host virus diversity. The authors observed only one or two variants in most samples, but a few carried many variants. Although the evidence indicates strong purifying selection, including in the spike protein responsible for viral entry, the authors also saw evidence for transmission clusters associated with households and other possible superspreader events. After transmission, most variants fizzled out, but occasionally some initiated ongoing transmission and wider dissemination. Science , this issue p. [eabg0821][1] ### INTRODUCTION Genome sequencing at an unprecedented scale during the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic is helping to track spread of the virus and to identify new variants. Most of this work considers a single consensus sequence for each infected person. Here, we looked beneath the consensus to analyze genetic variation within viral populations making up an infection and studied the fate of within-host mutations when an infection is transmitted to a new individual. Within - host diversity offers the means to help confirm direct transmission and identify new variants of concern. ### RATIONALE We sequenced 1313 SARS-CoV-2 samples from the first wave of infection in the United Kingdom. We characterized within-host diversity and dynamics in the context of transmission and ongoing viral evolution. ### RESULTS Within-host diversity can be described by the number of intrahost single nucleotide variants (iSNVs) occurring above a given minor allele frequency (MAF) threshold. We found that in lower-viral-load samples, stochastic sampling effects resulted in a higher variance in MAFs, leading to more iSNVs being detected at any threshold. Based on a subset of 27 pairs of high-viral-load replicate RNA samples (>50,000 uniquely mapped veSEQ reads, corresponding to a cycle threshold of ~22), iSNVs with a minimum 3% MAF were highly reproducible. Comparing samples from two time points from 41 individuals, taken on average 6 days apart (interquartile ratio 2 to 10), we observed a dynamic process of iSNV generation and loss. Comparing iSNVs among 14 household contact pairs, we estimated transmission bottleneck sizes of one to eight viruses. Consensus differences between individuals in the same household, where sample depth allowed iSNV detection, were explained by the presence of an iSNV at the same site in the paired individual, consistent with direct transmission leading to fixation. We next focused on a set of 563 high-confidence iSNV sites that were variant in at least one high-viral-load sample (>50,000 uniquely mapped); low-confidence iSNVs unlikely to represent genomic diversity were excluded. Within-host diversity was limited in high-viral-load samples (mean 1.4 iSNVs per sample). Two exceptions, each with >14 iSNVs, showed variant frequencies consistent with coinfection or contamination. Overall, we estimated that 1 to 2% of samples in our dataset were coinfected and/or contaminated. Additionally, one sample was coinfected with another coronavirus (OC43), with no detectable impact on diversity. The ratio of nonsynonymous to synonymous ( dN/dS ) iSNVs was consistent with within-host purifying selection when estimated across the whole genome [ dN/dS = 0.55, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) = 0.49 to 0.61] and for the Spike gene ( dN/dS = 0.60, 95% CI = 0.45 to 0.82). Nevertheless, we observed Spike variants in multiple samples that have been shown to increase viral infectivity (L5F) or resistance to antibodies (G446V and A879V). We observed a strong association between high-confidence iSNVs and a consensus change on the phylogeny (153 cases), consistent with fixation after transmission or de novo mutations reaching consensus. Shared variants that never reached consensus (261 cases) were not phylogenetically associated. ### CONCLUSION Using robust methods to call within-host variants, we uncovered a consistent pattern of low within-host diversity, purifying selection, and narrow transmission bottlenecks. Within-host emergence of vaccine and therapeutic escape mutations is likely to be relatively rare, at least during early infection, when viral loads are high, but the observation of immune-escape variants in high-viral-load samples underlines the need for continued vigilance. ![Figure][2] Diagram showing low SARS-CoV-2 within-host genetic diversity and narrow transmission bottleneck. Individuals with high viral load typically have few, if any, within-host variants. Narrow transmission bottlenecks mean that the major variant in the source individual was typically transmitted and the minor variants lost. Occasionally, the minor variant was transmitted, leading to a consensus change, or multiple variants were transmitted, resulting in a mixed infection. Credit: FontAwesome, licensed under CC BY 4.0. Extensive global sampling and sequencing of the pandemic virus severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) have enabled researchers to monitor its spread and to identify concerning new variants. Two important determinants of variant spread are how frequently they arise within individuals and how likely they are to be transmitted. To characterize within-host diversity and transmission, we deep-sequenced 1313 clinical samples from the United Kingdom. SARS-CoV-2 infections are characterized by low levels of within-host diversity when viral loads are high and by a narrow bottleneck at transmission. Most variants are either lost or occasionally fixed at the point of transmission, with minimal persistence of shared diversity, patterns that are readily observable on the phylogenetic tree. Our results suggest that transmission-enhancing and/or immune-escape SARS-CoV-2 variants are likely to arise infrequently but could spread rapidly if successfully transmitted. [1]: /lookup/doi/10.1126/science.abg0821 [2]: pending:yes

First gate-to-gate autonomous airplane flight


A San Francisco-based company is claiming an aviation first with a gate-to-gate fully autonomous flight. You can see a video of the flight in the embed below. The company, Xwing, is setting out to introduce autonomous technology for regional air cargo, an overlooked space in the global race for autonomy but, with its sub-500 mile predictable routes and significant commercial importance, an intriguing entry point for autonomous air travel. Xwing is betting it can gain ground amid growing unmet logistics demand using its human-operated software stack that seamlessly integrates with existing aircraft to enable regional pilotless flight. "Over the past year, our team has made significant advancements in extending and refining our AutoFlight system to seamlessly integrate ground taxiing, take-offs, landings and flight operations, all supervised from our mission control center via redundant data links," says Marc Piette, CEO and founder of Xwing.

Cocoa could help obese people lose weight, study claims

Daily Mail - Science & tech

Substituting a cup of cocoa throughout the day for other snacks could help obese people lose weight – even if they're on a high-fat diet, a new study claims. In lab experiments, US researchers gave obese mice with liver disease a dietary supplement of cocoa powder, for a period of eight weeks. Even though the mice were on a high-fat diet, the experts found the supplement reduced DNA damage and the amount of fat in their livers. While there is more to learn about the health benefits of cocoa, the researchers believe it may in some way impede the digestion of dietary fat and carbohydrate, thereby avoiding weight gain. Supplementation of cocoa powder in the diet of high-fat-fed mice with liver disease markedly reduced the severity of their condition, according to a new study.

Alessandro Ferrari on LinkedIn: #AI #artificialintelligence #machinelearning


This work exploits a large source domain for pretraining and transfer the diversity information from source to target. Highlights: Anchor-based strategy for realism over regions in latent space A novel cross-domain distance consistency loss Existing models can be leveraged to model new distributions with less data Extensive results demonstrates qualitatively and quantitatively that this few-shot model automatically discovers correspondences between source and target domains and generates more diverse and realistic images than previous methods.