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Reinforcement Quantum Annealing: A Quantum-Assisted Learning Automata Approach

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

We introduce the reinforcement quantum annealing (RQA) scheme in which an intelligent agent interacts with a quantum annealer that plays the stochastic environment role of learning automata and tries to iteratively find better Ising Hamiltonians for the given problem of interest. As a proof-of-concept, we propose a novel approach for reducing the NP-complete problem of Boolean satisfiability (SAT) to minimizing Ising Hamiltonians and show how to apply the RQA for increasing the probability of finding the global optimum. Our experimental results on two different benchmark SAT problems (namely factoring pseudo-prime numbers and random SAT with phase transitions), using a D-Wave 2000Q quantum processor, demonstrated that RQA finds notably better solutions with fewer samples, compared to state-of-the-art techniques in the realm of quantum annealing.


Using Neural Networks for Programming by Demonstration

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Agent-based modeling is a paradigm of modeling dynamic systems of interacting agents that are individually governed by specified behavioral rules. Training a model of such agents to produce an emergent behavior by specification of the emergent (as opposed to agent) behavior is easier from a demonstration perspective. Without the involvement of manual behavior specification via code or reliance on a defined taxonomy of possible behaviors, the demonstrator specifies the desired emergent behavior of the system over time, and retrieves agent-level parameters required to execute that motion. A low time-complexity and data requirement favoring framework for reproducing emergent behavior, given an abstract demonstration, is discussed in [1], [2]. The existing framework does, however, observe an inherent limitation in scalability because of an exponentially growing search space (with the number of agent-level parameters). Our work addresses this limitation by pursuing a more scalable architecture with the use of neural networks. While the (proof-of-concept) architecture is not suitable for many evaluated domains because of its lack of representational capacity for that domain, it is more suitable than existing work for larger datasets for the Civil Violence agent-based model.


Unfolding the Structure of a Document using Deep Learning

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Understanding and extracting of information from large documents, such as business opportunities, academic articles, medical documents and technical reports, poses challenges not present in short documents. Such large documents may be multi-themed, complex, noisy and cover diverse topics. We describe a framework that can analyze large documents and help people and computer systems locate desired information in them. We aim to automatically identify and classify different sections of documents and understand their purpose within the document. A key contribution of our research is modeling and extracting the logical and semantic structure of electronic documents using deep learning techniques. We evaluate the effectiveness and robustness of our framework through extensive experiments on two collections: more than one million scholarly articles from arXiv and a collection of requests for proposal documents from government sources.



RelExt: Relation Extraction using Deep Learning approaches for Cybersecurity Knowledge Graph Improvement

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Security Analysts that work in a `Security Operations Center' (SoC) play a major role in ensuring the security of the organization. The amount of background knowledge they have about the evolving and new attacks makes a significant difference in their ability to detect attacks. Open source threat intelligence sources, like text descriptions about cyber-attacks, can be stored in a structured fashion in a cybersecurity knowledge graph. A cybersecurity knowledge graph can be paramount in aiding a security analyst to detect cyber threats because it stores a vast range of cyber threat information in the form of semantic triples which can be queried. A semantic triple contains two cybersecurity entities with a relationship between them. In this work, we propose a system to create semantic triples over cybersecurity text, using deep learning approaches to extract possible relationships. We use the set of semantic triples generated through our system to assert in a cybersecurity knowledge graph. Security Analysts can retrieve this data from the knowledge graph, and use this information to form a decision about a cyber-attack.


Cyber-All-Intel: An AI for Security related Threat Intelligence

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Keeping up with threat intelligence is a must for a security analyst today. There is a volume of information present in `the wild' that affects an organization. We need to develop an artificial intelligence system that scours the intelligence sources, to keep the analyst updated about various threats that pose a risk to her organization. A security analyst who is better `tapped in' can be more effective. In this paper we present, Cyber-All-Intel an artificial intelligence system to aid a security analyst. It is a system for knowledge extraction, representation and analytics in an end-to-end pipeline grounded in the cybersecurity informatics domain. It uses multiple knowledge representations like, vector spaces and knowledge graphs in a 'VKG structure' to store incoming intelligence. The system also uses neural network models to pro-actively improve its knowledge. We have also created a query engine and an alert system that can be used by an analyst to find actionable cybersecurity insights.


AI-powered stethoscope can spot pneumonia without a doctor

#artificialintelligence

Scientists have invented the gadget to be able to spot warning signs - without the need for a doctor's trained ear. Using noise-filtering technology and an understanding of what lungs with pneumonia sound like, the stethoscope could save lives, its developers say. The Feelix and FeelixPro stethoscopes will be launched this year and scientists say it correctly identifies the disease almost nine times out of 10. Developed by experts from Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore, Maryland, the stethoscope is believed to be 87 per cent accurate at diagnosing the lung disease. Pneumonia, which causes the lungs to fill with fluid, kills almost one million children under the age of five globally each year.


Knowledge Graph Fact Prediction via Knowledge-Enriched Tensor Factorization

arXiv.org Machine Learning

We present a family of novel methods for embedding knowledge graphs into real-valued tensors. These tensor-based embeddings capture the ordered relations that are typical in the knowledge graphs represented by semantic web languages like RDF. Unlike many previous models, our methods can easily use prior background knowledge provided by users or extracted automatically from existing knowledge graphs. In addition to providing more robust methods for knowledge graph embedding, we provide a provably-convergent, linear tensor factorization algorithm. We demonstrate the efficacy of our models for the task of predicting new facts across eight different knowledge graphs, achieving between 5% and 50% relative improvement over existing state-of-the-art knowledge graph embedding techniques. Our empirical evaluation shows that all of the tensor decomposition models perform well when the average degree of an entity in a graph is high, with constraint-based models doing better on graphs with a small number of highly similar relations and regularization-based models dominating for graphs with relations of varying degrees of similarity.


AI-powered stethoscope can spot pneumonia by listening to how a patient breathes

Daily Mail - Science & tech

Scientists have invented the gadget to be able to spot warning signs in any environment without the need for a doctor's trained ear. Using noise-filtering technology and an understanding of what lungs with pneumonia sound like, the stethoscope could save lives, its developers say. The Feelix and FeelixPro stethoscopes will be launched this year and scientists say it correctly identifies the disease almost nine times out of 10. Developed by experts from Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore, Maryland, the stethoscope is believed to be 87 per cent accurate at diagnosing the lung disease. Pneumonia, which causes the lungs to fill with fluid, kills almost one million children under the age of five globally each year.


Self-Attention Equipped Graph Convolutions for Disease Prediction

arXiv.org Machine Learning

SELF-A TTENTION EQUIPPED GRAPH CONVOLUTIONS FOR DISEASE PREDICTION Anees Kazi 1, S.Arvind krishna 2, Shayan Shekarforoush 3, Karsten Kortuem 4, Shadi Albarqouni 1, Nassir Navab 1, 5 1 Computer Aided Medical Procedures, Technische Universität München, Germany 2 National Institute of Technology Tiruchirappalli, India 3 Sharif University of Technology, Iran 4 Augenklinik der Universität, Klinikum der Universität München, Germany 5 Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore MD, USA ABSTRACT Multi-modal data comprising imaging (MRI, fMRI, PET, etc.) and non-imaging (clinical test, demographics, etc.) data can be collected together and used for disease prediction. Such diverse data gives complementary information about the patient's condition to make an informed diagnosis. A model capable of leveraging the individuality of each multi-modal data is required for better disease prediction. We propose a graph convolution based deep model which takes into account the distinctiveness of each element of the multi-modal data. We incorporate a novel self-attention layer, which weights every element of the demographic data by exploring its relation to the underlying disease.