Syria


Report to Congress on Artificial Intelligence and National Security - USNI News

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The following is the Nov. 21, 2019 Congressional Research Service report, Artificial Intelligence and National Security. Artificial intelligence (AI) is a rapidly growing field of technology with potentially significant implications for national security. As such, the U.S. Department of Defense (DOD) and other nations are developing AI applications for a range of military functions. AI research is underway in the fields of intelligence collection and analysis, logistics, cyber operations, information operations, command and control, and in a variety of semiautonomous and autonomous vehicles. Already, AI has been incorporated into military operations in Iraq and Syria.


Kamala Harris scolds Trump for remarks on Baghdadi death: It was like he was commenting on a 'video game'

FOX News

Abu Hassan al-Muhajir had been considered a'number two' to ISIS leader al-Baghdadi; Benjamin Hall reports from northern Syria. Sen. Kamala Harris, D-Calif., praised the U.S. military and intelligence community for the raid that killed ISIS leader Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi, but called out President Trump for his "extraordinary" reaction to the successful mission. Speaking Monday on NBC's "Late Night" with Seth Meyers, the 2020 presidential contender argued that Trump's remarks after the raid proved he "does not fully appreciate the importance of the job." "That press conference was extraordinary. You would think that he was talking about watching and giving commentary on a video game. He is the commander in chief, the commander in chief of the United States of America," she stressed, then drawing applause for using female pronouns to describe the presidency.


BART: Denoising Sequence-to-Sequence Pre-training for Natural Language Generation, Translation, and Comprehension

arXiv.org Machine Learning

BART is trained by (1) corrupting text with an arbitrary noising function, and (2) learning a model to reconstruct the original text. It uses a standard Tranformer-based neural machine translation architecture which, despite its simplicity, can be seen as generalizing BERT (due to the bidirectional encoder), GPT (with the left-to-right decoder), and many other more recent pretraining schemes. We evaluate a number of noising approaches, finding the best performance by both randomly shuffling the order of the original sentences and using a novel in-filling scheme, where spans of text are replaced with a single mask token. BART is particularly effective when fine tuned for text generation but also works well for comprehension tasks. It matches the performance of RoBERTa with comparable training resources on GLUE and SQuAD, achieves new state-of-the-art results on a range of abstractive dialogue, question answering, and summarization tasks, with gains of up to 6 ROUGE. BART also provides a 1.1 BLEU increase over a back-translation system for machine translation, with only target language pretraining. We also report ablation experiments that replicate other pretraining schemes within the BART framework, to better measure which factors most influence end-task performance.


Retool AI to forecast and limit wars

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Armed violence is on the rise and we don't know how to stop it1. Since 2011, conflicts worldwide have killed up to 100,000 people a year, three-quarters of whom were in Afghanistan, Iraq and Syria. The rate of major wars has decreased over the past few decades. But the number of civil conflicts has doubled since the 1960s, and terrorist attacks have become more frequent in the past ten years. The nature of conflict is changing.


Can A.I. simulations predict the future?

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Multi-agent systems have been used to predict online trading behaviors, disaster response protocols, and social structure modeling. They can help us understand dimensionality, discreteness, determinism, and episodicity. Syria is not the only model that can be constructed using MAAI. An even more contentious example is voting. While there has been a lot of talk about the potential role of deepfakes in the 2020 election in America--even though, currently, most videos are currently used to pornographically degrade women--MAAI might play an even bigger role.


European News Agencies discuss artificial intelligence

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Anadolu Agency called on other European news media organizations to be more sensitive towards the ongoing tragedy in Syria. A three-day general assembly of the European Alliance of News Agencies (EANA) came to an end on Friday in the Czech capital Prague. Anadolu Agency editor-in-chief Metin Mutanoglu said in a speech that Syria's northwestern Idlib area was under heavy fire by Bashar al-Assad regime forces and that the region was facing a fresh wave of migrants. Mutanoglu underlined that though tens of thousands were forced to leave their homes due to regime attacks, the European news media were not interested enough in the issue. A new migration wave would affect not only Turkey but the rest of Europe as well, he stressed, adding that EANA should thus make a greater effort to draw attention to the humanitarian crisis in war-torn country .


Airstrikes on Iran-backed groups in Syria apparently kill 18; Hezbollah claims downing of Israeli drone

The Japan Times

BEIRUT – Unknown warplanes targeted overnight an arms depot and posts of Iranian-backed militias in eastern Syria, near the Iraqi border, killing at least 18 fighters, Syrian opposition activists said Monday. The strikes come amid rising tensions in the Middle East and the crisis between Iran and the U.S. in the wake of the collapsing nuclear deal between Tehran and world powers. An official with an Iranian-backed militia in Iraq blamed Israel for the airstrikes that hit in the eastern Syrian town of Boukamal. There was no immediate comment from Israel. Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu said last month that Iran has no immunity anywhere and that the Israeli military "will act -- and currently are acting -- against them."


Artificial Intelligence Will Make Our Forever Wars Truly Forever

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The world's major powers are in the middle of an artificial intelligence (AI) arms race. Over the next several years, China expects to deploy a fleet of unmanned submarines in contested waters like the South China Sea. Russia has tested its robotic tank on the battlefield in Syria and is reportedly working on developing autonomous nuclear submarines. For its part, the United States is in the process of testing autonomous swarming drones. This development has major implications--not just for how wars are fought, but also for the future of American foreign policy.


Semantic Hypergraphs

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Existing computational methods for the analysis of corpora of text in natural language are still far from approaching a human level of understanding. We attempt to advance the state of the art by introducing a model and algorithmic framework to transform text into recursively structured data. We apply this to the analysis of news titles extracted from a social news aggregation website. We show that a recursive ordered hypergraph is a sufficiently generic structure to represent significant number of fundamental natural language constructs, with advantages over conventional approaches such as semantic graphs. We present a pipeline of transformations from the output of conventional NLP algorithms to such hypergraphs, which we denote as semantic hypergraphs. The features of these transformations include the creation of new concepts from existing ones, the organisation of statements into regular structures of predicates followed by an arbitrary number of entities and the ability to represent statements about other statements. We demonstrate knowledge inference from the hypergraph, identifying claims and expressions of conflicts, along with their participating actors and topics. We show how this enables the actor-centric summarization of conflicts, comparison of topics of claims between actors and networks of conflicts between actors in the context of a given topic. On the whole, we propose a hypergraphic knowledge representation model that can be used to provide effective overviews of a large corpus of text in natural language.


4M Analytics clears minefields with artificial intelligence - Israel News - Jerusalem Post

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A sign marks a landmine field, left from a past conflict, near Israel's Golan Heights village of Merom Golan August 20, 2006. Syria, a key Hizbollah ally, wants the Lebanon war to lead to a comprehensive peace settlement that addresses what Damascus regards as the root of instability -- Israeli occu. Despite record global investment in land mine clearance in 2017 that exceeded $770 million worldwide, nearly 2,800 people were killed and thousands more injured by mines and other explosive remnants of war (ERW). Civilians, half of them children, accounted for 87% of all casualties. Over half of 62 countries known to have mine contamination are committed to the Mine Ban Treaty, also known as the Ottawa Treaty, but only four are on track to meet their clearance deadlines.