If you are looking for an answer to the question What is Artificial Intelligence? and you only have a minute, then here's the definition the Association for the Advancement of Artificial Intelligence offers on its home page: "the scientific understanding of the mechanisms underlying thought and intelligent behavior and their embodiment in machines."
However, if you are fortunate enough to have more than a minute, then please get ready to embark upon an exciting journey exploring AI (but beware, it could last a lifetime) …
Collaborative filtering, a widely-used recommendation technique, predicts a user's preference by aggregating the ratings from similar users. As a result, these measures cannot fully utilize the rating information and are not suitable for real world sparse data. To solve these issues, we propose a novel user distance measure named Preference Mover's Distance (PMD) which makes full use of all ratings made by each user. Our proposed PMD can properly measure the distance between a pair of users even if they have no co-rated items. We show that this measure can be cast as an instance of the Earth Mover's Distance, a well-studied transportation problem for which several highly efficient solvers have been developed. Experimental results show that PMD can help achieve superior recommendation accuracy than state-of-the-art methods, especially when training data is very sparse.
A personalized learning system needs a large pool of items for learners to solve. When working with a large pool of items, it is useful to measure the similarity of items. We outline a general approach to measuring the similarity of items and discuss specific measures for items used in introductory programming. Evaluation of quality of similarity measures is difficult. To this end, we propose an evaluation approach utilizing three levels of abstraction. We illustrate our approach to measuring similarity and provide evaluation using items from three diverse programming environments.
Recommender systems are widely used to predict personalized preferences of goods or services using users' past activities, such as item ratings or purchase histories. If collections of such personal activities were made publicly available, they could be used to personalize a diverse range of services, including targeted advertisement or recommendations. However, there would be an accompanying risk of privacy violations. The pioneering work of Narayanan et al.\ demonstrated that even if the identifiers are eliminated, the public release of user ratings can allow for the identification of users by those who have only a small amount of data on the users' past ratings. In this paper, we assume the following setting. A collector collects user ratings, then anonymizes and distributes them. A recommender constructs a recommender system based on the anonymized ratings provided by the collector. Based on this setting, we exhaustively list the models of recommender systems that use anonymized ratings. For each model, we then present an item-based collaborative filtering algorithm for making recommendations based on anonymized ratings. Our experimental results show that an item-based collaborative filtering based on anonymized ratings can perform better than collaborative filterings based on 5--10 non-anonymized ratings. This surprising result indicates that, in some settings, privacy protection does not necessarily reduce the usefulness of recommendations. From the experimental analysis of this counterintuitive result, we observed that the sparsity of the ratings can be reduced by anonymization and the variance of the prediction can be reduced if $k$, the anonymization parameter, is appropriately tuned. In this way, the predictive performance of recommendations based on anonymized ratings can be improved in some settings.
Many Collaborative Filtering (CF) algorithms are item-based in the sense that they analyze item-item relations in order to produce item similarities. Recently, several works in the field of Natural Language Processing (NLP) suggested to learn a latent representation of words using neural embedding algorithms. Among them, the Skip-gram with Negative Sampling (SGNS), also known as word2vec, was shown to provide state-of-the-art results on various linguistics tasks. In this paper, we show that item-based CF can be cast in the same framework of neural word embedding. Inspired by SGNS, we describe a method we name item2vec for item-based CF that produces embedding for items in a latent space. The method is capable of inferring item-item relations even when user information is not available. We present experimental results that demonstrate the effectiveness of the item2vec method and show it is competitive with SVD.
In the series of implementing Recommendation engines, in my previous blog about recommendation system in R, I have explained about implementing user based collaborative filtering approach using R. In this post, I will be explaining about basic implementation of Item based collaborative filtering recommender systems in r. Intuition: Item based Collaborative Filtering: Unlike in user based collaborative filtering discussed previously, in item-based collaborative filtering, we consider set of items rated by the user and computes item similarities with the targeted item. Once similar items are found, and then rating for the new item is predicted by taking weighted average of the user's rating on these similar items. Let us build an algorithm to recommend movies to CHAN.
This could help you in building your first project! Be it a fresher or an experienced professional in data science, doing voluntary projects always adds to one's candidature. My sole reason behind writing this article is to get your started with recommendation systems so that you can build one. If you struggle to get open data, write to me in comments. Recommendation engines are nothing but an automated form of a "shop counter guy".