If you are looking for an answer to the question What is Artificial Intelligence? and you only have a minute, then here's the definition the Association for the Advancement of Artificial Intelligence offers on its home page: "the scientific understanding of the mechanisms underlying thought and intelligent behavior and their embodiment in machines."
However, if you are fortunate enough to have more than a minute, then please get ready to embark upon an exciting journey exploring AI (but beware, it could last a lifetime) …
In other words, he hopes the new chip and the new service will set Google's cloud business apart from services offered by its main rivals, including Amazon and Microsoft, the unnamed competitive threat underlying his I/O keynote. Between its two AI labs--Google Brain, based at company headquarters in Silicon Valley, and DeepMind, a London AI startup Google purchased a little more than three years ago--Google is leading the new wave of artificial intelligence research and development so rapidly changing entire industries and economies. But the company believes cloud computing--where computing power is rented over the internet to businesses and software developers--could one day bring in far more. Google built its new chip as a better way of serving its own AI services, most notably Google Translate, says Jeff Dean, the uber-engineer who oversees Google Brain, the company's main AI lab.
While not well understood, neural networks, deep learning, and reinforcement learning are all machine learning. Each layer of a deep learning model lets the computer identify another level of abstraction of the same object. Reinforcement learning, takes ideas from game theory, and includes a mechanism to assist learning through rewards. Researchers refer to this challenge as the black box problem of machine learning.
The takeaway here is the machine learning allows companies to build better applications that interact with things people create: pictures, speech, text, and other messy things. Interfaces powered by machine learning will make computing omnipresent. Like their other products, both Google Search and Facebook Photos demonstrate how RDAs generate significant network effects. Or, you could have a giant install base which only occasionally codes data (Facebook, whose users tag photos usually when they're uploaded).