Artificial Intelligence: A General Survey (The Lighthill Report)


In forming such a view the Council has available to it a great deal of specialist information through its structure of Boards and Committees-- particularly from the Engineering Board and its Computing Science Committee and from the Science Board and its Biological Sciences Committee. To supplement the important mass of specialist and detailed information available to the Science Research Council, its Chairman decided to commission an independent report by someone outside the Al eld but with substantial general experience of research work in multidisciplinary elds including elds with mathematical, engineering and biological aspects. Such a personal view of the subject might be helpful to other lay persons such as Council members in the process of preparing to study specialist reports and recommendations and working towards detailed policy formation and decision taking. In scientic applications, there is a similar look beyond conventional data processing to the problems involved in large-scale data banking and retrieval, The vast eld of chemical compounds is one which has lent itself to ingenious and eective programs for data storage and retrieval and for the inference of chemical structure from mass-spec- trometry and other data.

Hierarchies in Pattern Recognition


Particular attention is given to processes involving pattern recognition, learning, planning ahead, and the use of analogies or?models!. Second, we can often find simple machines which in certain situations do exhibit performances which would be called intelligent If done by a man. In attempting to design intelligent machines we are, in effect, concerned with the problems of "creativity". Usually the problem is not so much to find the basic structure (or the domain of things to try) as to find ways of reducing this structure to reasonable size.

Empirical Explorations with the Logic Theory Machine: A Case Study in Heuristics


This is a case study in problem-solving, representing part of a program of research on complex information-processing systems. We have specifieda system for finding proofs of theorems in elementary symbolic logic, and by programming a computer to these specifications, have obtained empirical data on the problem-solving process in elementary logic. The program is called the Logic Theory Machine (LT); it was devised to learn how it is possible to solve difficult problems such as proving mathematical theorems, discovering scientific laws from data, playing chess, or understanding the meaning of English prose.The research reported here is aimed at understanding the complexp rocesses (heuristics) that are effective in problem-solving. Hence, we are not interested in methods that guarantee solutions, but which require vastamounts of computation. Rather, we wish to understand how a mathematician, for example, is able to prove a theorem even though he does not know when he starts how, or if, he is going to succeed.Proceedings of the Western Joint Computer Conference, 15:218-239. Reprinted in Feigenbaum and Feldman, Computers and Thought (1963).