If you are looking for an answer to the question What is Artificial Intelligence? and you only have a minute, then here's the definition the Association for the Advancement of Artificial Intelligence offers on its home page: "the scientific understanding of the mechanisms underlying thought and intelligent behavior and their embodiment in machines."
However, if you are fortunate enough to have more than a minute, then please get ready to embark upon an exciting journey exploring AI (but beware, it could last a lifetime) …
Deep learning models are complex and tricky to train, and I had a hunch that lack of model convergence/difficulties training probably explained the poor performance, not overfitting. We recreated python versions of the Leekasso and MLP used in the original post to the best of our ability, and the code is available here. The MLP used in the original analysis still looks pretty bad for small sample sizes, but our neural nets get essentially perfect accuracy for all sample sizes. A lot of parameters are problem specific (especially the parameters related to SGD) and poor choices will result in misleadingly bad performance.
Introduction: In the first blog, we decided on the predictors. We knew that different predictive models have different assumptions about their predictors. Random Forest has none, but Logistic Regression requires normality of the continuous variables, and assumes the probability between 2 consecutive unit levels in a series of numbers to stay constant. K Nearest Neighbors requires the predictors to be at least on the same scale. SVM, Logistic Regression, and Neural Networks tend to be sensitive to outliers.
In contrast to k-nearest neighbors, a simple example of a parametric method would be logistic regression, a generalized linear model with a fixed number of model parameters: a weight coefficient for each feature variable in the dataset plus a bias (or intercept) unit. While the learning algorithm optimizes an objective function on the training set (with exception to lazy learners), hyperparameter optimization is yet another task on top of it; here, we typically want to optimize a performance metric such as classification accuracy or the area under a Receiver Operating Characteristic curve. Thinking back of our discussion about learning curves and pessimistic biases in Part II, we noted that a machine learning algorithm often benefits from more labeled data; the smaller the dataset, the higher the pessimistic bias and the variance -- the sensitivity of our model towards the way we partition the data. We start by splitting our dataset into three parts, a training set for model fitting, a validation set for model selection, and a test set for the final evaluation of the selected model.
I find Keras a very useful and well done tool. It is perfect to start using Theano and it is really easily understandable and usable. Now, I realised a Keras model (using Theano interface), which works perfectly well and I would like to replicate it using only Theano code. Since Keras is actually using Theano code, I should be able, in principle, to do this. The neural net is a convolutional neural network for a one output regression task, with the following layers: conv2d, maxpool2d, conv2d, maxpool2d, dense, dense, output and using Adam optimizer.
A positive label means that an utterance was an actual response to a context, and a negative label means that the utterance wasn't – it was picked randomly from somewhere in the corpus. Each record in the test/validation set consists of a context, a ground truth utterance (the real response) and 9 incorrect utterances called distractors. Before starting with fancy Neural Network models let's build some simple baseline models to help us understand what kind of performance we can expect. The Deep Learning model we will build in this post is called a Dual Encoder LSTM network.
Loss doesn't necessarily tell the whole story, and there's been experiments where people have observed performance continuing to improve (presumably validation performance) even after the training error bottoms out. Overfitting typically refers to the training set, i.e. the model becoming overconfident in its predictions for things it's previously seen, as if it's memorizing the training data. If your validation precision is important to you and it continues to improve, and you think your validation set/performance is a reasonable surrogate for your test case/set/performance, then I would take those results and run with em. An easy way to test this would be to take multiple model snapshots and compare them on the test set--one taken just as the validation loss bottoms out, and several taken after that. See where generalization error starts to increase.
Keras is a Python library for deep learning that wraps the efficient numerical libraries TensorFlow and Theano. Keras allows you to quickly and simply design and train neural network and deep learning models. In this post you will discover how to effectively use the Keras library in your machine learning project by working through a binary classification project step-by-step. Binary Classification Worked Example with the Keras Deep Learning Library Photo by Mattia Merlo, some rights reserved. The dataset we will use in this tutorial is the Sonar dataset.
Keras is one of the most popular deep learning libraries in Python for research and development because of its simplicity and ease of use. The scikit-learn library is the most popular library for general machine learning in Python. In this post you will discover how you can use deep learning models from Keras with the scikit-learn library in Python. This will allow you to leverage the power of the scikit-learn library for tasks like model evaluation and model hyper-parameter optimization. Use Keras Deep Learning Models with Scikit-Learn in Python Photo by Alan Levine, some rights reserved.
Why can't you train your machine learning algorithm on your dataset and use predictions from this same dataset to evaluate machine learning algorithms? We will start with the simplest method called Train and Test Sets. In the example below we split the data Pima Indians dataset into 67%/33% split for training and test and evaluate the accuracy of a Logistic Regression model. Another variation on k-fold cross validation is to create a random split of the data like the train/test split described above, but repeat the process of splitting and evaluation of the algorithm multiple times, like cross validation.
You might then train the model on your training dataset and find that the performance (classification accuracy, training time, etc.) We will now discuss creating a Rescale optimization job to run a black-box optimizer from the machine learning literature. When SMAC runs the training script, it passes the current hyper-parameter selections to evaluate as command line flags. In order for SMAC to call the Rescale python SDK, we write a wrapper script, which we will call smac_opt.py, The wrapper then submits the training script to be run.