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14 Rediscovering some Problems of Artificial Intelligence in the Context of Organic Chemistry

Classics (Collection 2)

In particular its task domain is the analysis of mass spectra, chemical data gathered routinely from a relatively new analytical instrument, the mass spectrometer. This collaboration of chemists and computer scientists has produced what appears to be an interesting program from the viewpoint of artificial intelligence and a useful tool from the viewpoint of chemistry. For this discussion it is sufficient to say that a mass spectrometer is an instrument into which is put a minute sample of some chemical compound and out of which comes data usually represented as a bar graph. This is what is referred to here as the mass spectrum. The x-points of the bar graph represent the masses of ions produced and the y-points represent the relative abundances of ions of these masses.


Report 83-20.pdf

Classics (Collection 2)

Jeffrey S. Rosenschein and Vineet Singh Heuristic Programming Project Computer Science Department Stanford University Stanford, CA 94305 Abstract Meta-level control, in an Artificial Intelligence system, can provide increased capabilities This improvement, however, is achieved at the cost of the meta-level effort itself. This paper outlines a formalization of the costs involved in choosing between independent problem-solving methods: the cost of meta-level control is explicitly included. It is often desirable for Artificial Intelligence systems to make use of explicit knowledge about what they know; this tneta-level knowledge allows a program to direct its own activities in an informed and efficient manner [I] [21. The use of meta-level knowledge by a system to control its own actions is called'new-level confrol. If we are to gain efficiene; thi-migh the use of meta-level effort, \'.e must be sure that %'.hat is aved at the base level is not canceled by what is expended at the rnota-level.


Report 77-33.pdf

Classics (Collection 2)

Reprint of a paper appearing in: Proceedings AWL Conference, SIGART/SIC;PLAN Combined issue, August, 1977. We suggest that the concept of a strategy can profitably oe viewLd as know,,tie about /ow to st,'t ct porn aII1011g a set of plausibly useful knowledge sowces, and explore the framewoi k foi knowledge organization which this implies. Meta rules are also considered in the broader context of a tool for programming. We show that they can be conciciered a medium for expressing the criteria for.etri7val The utility of this as a prugrairiming mechanism is considered.


S Report 77 16 Stanford KSL

Classics (Collection 2)

Meta-Level Knowledge: Overview and Applications Randall Davis and Bruce C. Buchanan Computer Science Department Stanford University Stanford, California 94305 Abstract The representation and use of knowledge has been a central problem in Al research. A range of different encoding techniques have been developed, along with a number of approaches to applying knowledge. Most of the effort to date however, has concentrated on representing and manipulating knowledge about a specific domain of application, like game-playing, natural language understanding, speech understanding, etc. It begins by defining the term, then explores a few of its varieties and considers the range of capabilities it makes possible. Four specific examples of meta-level knowledge are described - as they have been implemented in a program called TEIRESIAS.