Representation & Reasoning


Model-based reasoning: Troubleshooting

Classics

In: Howard Shrobe, editor, Exploring Artificial Intelligence. Morgan Kaufmann,


Diagnostic reasoning based on structure and behavior

Classics

See also:Retrospective on "Diagnostic reasoning based on structure and behavior", Artificial Intelligence (59) 1993 149-157MIT A.I. Memo 739, June, 1984Artificial Intelligence 24:347-410


Expert Systems: Where Are We? And Where Do We Go from Here?

Classics

"Work on Expert Systems has received extensive attention recently, prompting growing interest in a range of environments. Much has been made of the basic concept and of the rule-based system approach typically used to construct the programs. Perhaps this is a good time then to review what we know, asses the current prospects, and suggest directions appropriate for the next steps of basic research. I'd like to do that today, and propose to do it by taking you on a journey of sorts, a metaphorical trip through the State of the Art of Expert Systems. We'll wander about the landscape, ranging from the familiar territory of the Land of Accepted Wisdom, to the vast unknowns at the Frontiers of Knowledge. I guarantee we'll all return safely, so come along...."AI Magazine 3(2): Spring 1982, 3-22.


Meta-rules: Reasoning about control

Classics

How can we insure that knowledge embedded in a program is applied effectively? Traditionally the answer to this question has been sought in different problem solving paradigms and in different approaches to encoding and indexing knowledge. Each of these is useful with a certain variety of problem, but they all share a common problem: they become ineffective in the face of a sufficiently large knowledge base. How then can we make it possible for a system to continue to function in the face of a very large number of plausibly useful chunks of knowledge?In response to this question we propose a framework for viewing issues of knowledge indexing and retrieval, a framework that includes what appears to be a useful perspective on the concept of a strategy. We view strategies as a means of controlling invocation in situations where traditional selection mechanisms become ineffective. We examine ways to effect such control, and describe meta-rules, a means of specifying strategies which offers a number of advantages. We consider at some length how and when it is useful to reason about control, and explore the advantages meta-rules offer for doing this. Artificial Intellligence 15:179-222


Knowledge-based systems in artificial intelligence

Classics

Classic Ph.D. dissertations by Randall Davis and Douglas Lenat, reprinted together in one volume. New York: McGraw-Hill.


Interactive transfer of expertise: Acquisition of new inference rules

Classics

Summary of Ph.D. dissertation, Computer Science Dept., Stanford University (1979)."TEIRESIAS is a program designed to provide assistance on the task of building knowledge-based systems. It facilitates the interactive transfer of knowledge from a human expert to the system, in a high level dialog conducted in a restricted subset of natural language. This paper explores an example of TEIRESIAS in operation and demonstrates how it guides the acquisition of new inference rules. The concept of meta-level knowledge is described and illustrations given of its utility in knowledge acquisition and its contribution to the more general issues of creating an intelligent program."Also in:Readings in Artificial Intelligence, ed. Webber, Bonnie Lynn and Nils J. Nilsson, Palo Alto, CA: Tioga Publishing Co., 1981.Orig. in IJCAI-77, vol.1, pp. 321 ff. Preprint in Stanford HPP Report #HPP-77-9.See also: Artificial Intelligence, 12[#2]:409-427. Readings in Artificial Intelligence, ed. Webber, Bonnie Lynn and Nils J. Nilsson, Palo Alto, CA: Tioga Publishing Co., 1981


Meta-level knowledge: Overview and applications

Classics

"We define the concept of meta-level Knowledge, and illustrate it by briefly reviewing four examples that have been described in detail elsewhere. The examples include applications of the idea to tasks such as transfer of expertise from a domain expert to a program, and the maintenance and use of large Knowledge bases. We explore common themes that arise from these examples, and examine broader implications of the idea, in particular its impact on the design and construction of large programs."IJCAI 5, 920-927


Use of Meta Level Knowledge in the Construction and Maintenance of Large Knowledge Bases

Classics

In Davis and Lenat (1980). Memo AIM-283, AILaboratory,and Rep.No.STAN-CS-76-552, Computer Science Dept., Stanford University.