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Knowledge Programming in Loops

AI Magazine

Early this year fifty people took an experimental course at Xerox PARC on knowledge programming in Loops. During the course, they extended and debugged small knowledge systems in a simulated economics domain called Truckin. Everyone learned how to use the environment Loops, formulated the knowledge for their own program, and represented it in Loops. The punchline to this story is that almost everyone learned enough about Loops to complete a small knowledge system in only three days.



Artificial Intelligence: An Assessment of the State-of-the-Art and Recommendations for Future Directions

AI Magazine

This report covers two main AI areas: natural language processing and expert systems. The discussion of each area includes an assessment of the state-of-the-art, an enumeration of problems areas and opportunities, recommendations for the next 5-10 years, and an assessment of the resources required to carry them out.


The Distributed Vehicle Monitoring Testbed: A Tool for Investigating Distributed Problem Solving Networks

AI Magazine

Cooperative distributed problem solving networks are distributed networks of semi-autonomous processing nodes that work together to solve a single problem. The Distributed Vehicle Monitoring Testbed is a flexible and fully-instrumented research tool for empirically evaluating alternative designs for these networks. The testbed simulates a class of a distributed knowledge-based problem solving systems operating on an abstracted version of a vehicle monitoring task. it implements a novel generic architecture for distributed problems solving networks that exploits the use of sophisticated local node control and meta-level control to improve global coherence in network problem solving; (2.)


Machine Learning: A Historical and Methodological Analysis

AI Magazine

Machine learning has always been an integral part of artificial intelligence, and its methodology has evolved in concert with the major concerns of the field. In response to the difficulties of encoding ever-increasing volumes of knowledge in modern AI systems, many researchers have recently turned their attention to machine learning as a means to overcome the knowledge acquisition bottleneck. This article presents a taxonomic analysis of machine learning organized primarily by learning strategies and secondarily by knowledge representation and application areas. A historical survey outlining the development of various approaches to machine learning is presented from early neural networks to present knowledge-intensive techniques.


GLISP: A Lisp-Based Programming System with Data Abstraction

AI Magazine

GLISP programs are shorter and more readable than equivalent LISP programs. The object code produced by GLISP is optimized, making it about as efficient as handwritten Lisp. An integrated programming environment is provided, including automatic incremental compilation, interpretive programming features, and an intelligent display-based inspector/editor for data and data-type descriptions. GLISP code is relatively portable; the compiler and data inspector are implemented for most major dialects of LISP and are available free or at nominal cost.


What Is Rational Psychology? Toward a Modern Mental Philosophy

AI Magazine

Rational psychology is the conceptual investigation of psychology by means of the most fit mathematical concepts. Several practical benefits should accrue from its recognition.


Knowledge Programming in Loops

AI Magazine

Early this year fifty people took an experimental course at Xerox PARC on knowledge programming in Loops. During the course, they extended and debugged small knowledge systems in a simulated economics domain called Truckin. Everyone learned how to use the environment Loops, formulated the knowledge for their own program, and represented it in Loops. At the end of the course a knowledge competition was run so that the strategies used in the different systems could be compared. The punchline to this story is that almost everyone learned enough about Loops to complete a small knowledge system in only three days. Although one must exercise caution in extrapolating from small experiments, the results suggest that there is substantial power in integrating multiple programming paradigms.


Artificial Intelligence: An Assessment of the State-of-the-Art and Recommendations for Future Directions

AI Magazine

This report covers two main AI areas: natural language processing and expert systems. The discussion of each area includes an assessment of the state-of-the-art, an enumeration of problems areas and opportunities, recommendations for the next 5-10 years, and an assessment of the resources required to carry them out. A discussion of possible university-industry-government cooperative efforts is also included.


GLISP: A Lisp-Based Programming System with Data Abstraction

AI Magazine

GLISP is a high-level language that is complied into LISP. It provides a versatile abstract-data-type facility with hierarchical inheritance of properties and object-centered programming. GLISP programs are shorter and more readable than equivalent LISP programs. The object code produced by GLISP is optimized, making it about as efficient as handwritten Lisp. An integrated programming environment is provided, including automatic incremental compilation, interpretive programming features, and an intelligent display-based inspector/editor for data and data-type descriptions. GLISP code is relatively portable; the compiler and data inspector are implemented for most major dialects of LISP and are available free or at nominal cost.