Although Switzerland is a small country, it is home to many internationally renowned universities and scientific institutions. The research landscape in Switzerland is rich, and AI-related themes are investigated by many teams under diverse umbrellas. This column sheds some light on selected developments and trends on AI in Switzerland as perceived by members of the Special Interest group on Artificial Intelligence and Cognitive Science (SGAICO) organizational team, which has brought together researchers from Switzerland interested in AI and cognitive science for over 30 years.
Knowledge workers perform work on many tasks per day and often switch between tasks. When performing work on a task, a knowledge worker must typically search, navigate and dig through file systems, documents and emails, all of which introduce friction into the flow of work. This friction can be reduced, and productivity improved, by capturing and modeling the context of a knowledge worker’s task based on how the knowledge worker interacts with an information space. Captured task contexts can be used to facilitate switching between tasks, to focus a user interface on just the information needed by a task and to recommend potentially other useful information. We report on the use of task contexts and the effect of context on productivity for a particular kind of knowledge worker, software developers. We also report on qualitative findings of the use of task contexts by a more general population of knowledge workers.
In cooperation with the Association for the Advancement of Artificial Intelligence (AAAI), the Twenty-Second International Conference on Case-Based Reasoning (ICCBR), the premier international meeting on research and applications in case-based reasoning (CBR), was held from Monday September 29 to Wednesday October 1, 2014, in Cork, Ireland. ICCBR is the annual meeting of the CBR community and the leading conference on this topic. Started in 1993 as the European Conference on CBR and 1995 as ICCBR, the two conferences alternated biennially until their merger in 2010.
Although a number of initiatives provide personalized context-aware guidance for niche use-cases, a standard framework for context awareness remains lacking. This article explains how semantic technology has been exploited to generate a centralized repository of personal activity context. This data drives advanced features such as, personal situation recognition and customizable rules for the context-sensitive management of personal devices and data sharing. As a proof-of-concept, we demonstrate how an innovative context-aware system has successfully adopted such an infrastructure.
Renz, Jochen (The Australian National University) | Ge, Xiaoyu (The Australian National University) | Gould, Stephen (The Australian National University) | Zhang, Peng (The Australian National University)
The aim of the Angry Birds AI competition (AIBIRDS) is to build intelligent agents that can play new Angry Birds levels better than the best human players. This is surprisingly difficult for AI as it requires similar capabilities to what intelligent systems need for successfully interacting with the physical world, one of the grand challenges of AI. As such the competition offers a simplified and controlled environment for developing and testing the necessary AI technologies, a seamless integration of computer vision, machine learning, knowledge representation and reasoning, reasoning under uncertainty, planning, and heuristic search, among others. Over the past three years there have been significant improvements, but we are still a long way from reaching the ultimate aim and, thus, there are great opportunities for participants in this competition.
An important research topic in artificial intelligence is automatic sensing and inferencing of contextual information, which is used to build computer models of the user’s activity. One approach to build such activity-aware systems is the notion of activity-based computing (ABC). ABC is a computing paradigm that has been applied in personal information management applications as well as in ubiquitous, multidevice, and interactive surface computing. ABC has emerged as a response to the traditional application- and file-centered computing paradigm, which is oblivious to a notion of a user’s activity context spanning heterogeneous devices, multiple applications, services, and information sources. In this article, we present ABC as an approach to contextualize information, and present our research into designing activity-centric computing technologies.
Albrecht, Stefano V. (University of Edinburgh) | Barreto, André M. S. (Brazilian National Laboratory for Scientific Computing) | Braziunas, Darius (Kobo Inc.) | Buckeridge, David L. (McGill University) | Cuayáhuitl, Heriberto (Heriot-Watt University) | Dethlefs, Nina (Heriot-Watt University) | Endres, Markus (University of Augsburg) | Farahmand, Amir-massoud (Carnegie Mellon University) | Fox, Mark (University of Toronto) | Frommberger, Lutz (University of Bremen) | Ganzfried, Sam (Carnegie Mellon University) | Gil, Yolanda (University of Southern California) | Guillet, Sébastien (Université du Québec à Chicoutimi) | Hunter, Lawrence E. (University of Colorado School of Medicine) | Jhala, Arnav (University of California Santa Cruz) | Kersting, Kristian (Technical University of Dortmund) | Konidaris, George (Massachusetts Institute of Technology) | Lecue, Freddy (IBM Research) | McIlraith, Sheila (University of Toronto) | Natarajan, Sriraam (Indiana University) | Noorian, Zeinab (University of Saskatchewan) | Poole, David (University of British Columbia) | Ronfard, Rémi (University of Grenoble) | Saffiotti, Alessandro (Orebro University) | Shaban-Nejad, Arash (McGill University) | Srivastava, Biplav (IBM Research) | Tesauro, Gerald (IBM Research) | Uceda-Sosa, Rosario (IBM Research) | Broeck, Guy Van den (Katholieke Universiteit Leuven) | Otterlo, Martijn van (Radboud University Nijmegen) | Wallace, Byron C. (University of Texas) | Weng, Paul (Pierre and Marie Curie University) | Wiens, Jenna (University of Michigan) | Zhang, Jie (Nanyang Technological University)
The AAAI-14 Workshop program was held Sunday and Monday, July 27–28, 2012, at the Québec City Convention Centre in Québec, Canada. Canada. The AAAI-14 workshop program included fifteen workshops covering a wide range of topics in artificial intelligence. The titles of the workshops were AI and Robotics; Artificial Intelligence Applied to Assistive Technologies and Smart Environments; Cognitive Computing for Augmented Human Intelligence; Computer Poker and Imperfect Information; Discovery Informatics; Incentives and Trust in Electronic Communities; Intelligent Cinematography and Editing; Machine Learning for Interactive Systems: Bridging the Gap between Perception, Action and Communication; Modern Artificial Intelligence for Health Analytics; Multiagent Interaction without Prior Coordination; Multidisciplinary Workshop on Advances in Preference Handling; Semantic Cities — Beyond Open Data to Models, Standards and Reasoning; Sequential Decision Making with Big Data; Statistical Relational AI; and The World Wide Web and Public Health Intelligence. This article presents short summaries of those events.
We discuss the nature of big data and address the role of semantics in analyzing and processing big data that arises in the context of physical-cyber-social systems. To handle volume, we advocate semantic perception that can convert low-level observational data to higher-level abstractions more suitable for decision-making. To handle variety, we resort to semantic models and annotations of data so that intelligent processing can be done independent of heterogeneity of data formats and media. To handle velocity, we seek to use continuous semantics capability to dynamically create event or situation specific models and recognize relevant new concepts, entities and facts. To handle veracity, we explore trust models and approaches to glean trustworthiness. These four v's of big data are harnessed by the semantics-empowered analytics to derive value to support applications transcending physical-cyber-social continuum.
We describe an approach for identifying fine-grained entity types in heterogeneous data graphs that is effective for unstructured data or when the underlying ontologies or semantic schemas are unknown. Identifying fine-grained entity types, rather than a few high-level types, supports coreference resolution in heterogeneous graphs by reducing the number of possible coreference relations that must be considered. Big data problems that involve integrating data from multiple sources can benefit from our approach when the datas ontologies are unknown, inaccessible or semantically trivial. For such cases, we use supervised machine learning to map entity attributes and relations to a known set of attributes and relations from appropriate background knowledge bases to predict instance entity types. We evaluated this approach in experiments on data from DBpedia, Freebase, and Arnetminer using DBpedia as the background knowledge base.