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Artificial Intelligence Research at General Electric

AI Magazine

General Electric is engaged in a broad range of research and development activities in artificial intelligence, with the dual objectives of improving the productivity of its internal operations and of enhancing future products and services in its aerospace, industrial, aircraft engine, commercial, and service sectors. Many of the applications projected for AI within GE will require significant advances in the state of the art in advanced inference, formal logic, and architectures for real-time systems. New software tools for creating expert systems are needed to expedite the construction of knowledge bases. Further, new application domains such as computer -aided design (CAD), computer- aided manufacturing (CAM), and image understanding based on formal logic require novel concepts in knowledge representation and inference beyond the capabilities of current production rule systems. Fundamental research in artificial intelligence is concentrated at Corporate Research and Development (CR&D), with advanced development and applications pursued in parallel efforts by operating departments. The fundamental research and advanced applications activities are strongly coupled, providing research teams with opportunities for field evaluations of new concepts and systems. This article summarizes current research projects at CR&D and gives an overview of applications within the company.


Review of "Report on the 1984 Distributed Artificial Intelligence Workshop

AI Magazine

The fifth Distributed Artificial Intelligence Workshop was held at the Schlumberger-Doll Research Laboratory from October 14 to 17, 1984. It was attended by 20 participants from academic and industrial institutions. As in the past, this workshop was designed as an informal meeting. It included brief research reports from individual groups along with general discussion of questions of common interest. This report summarizes the general discussion and contains summaries of group presentations that have been contributed by individual speakers.


Editorial

AI Magazine

It has been a gratifying experience to observe and to One major exception: I know that many members participate in the growth of our Association's Magazine. As the official publication worried about how we'd get enough material to put out the Moreover, there is no articles full, and I was concerned that it just be nonempty! We don't have that I had rejected almost nothing since I had taken over-the editorial staff to do extensive rewriting or editing. "All the news we get we print" was close to the truth. Most of the magazine published four issues, averaging a little over 40 pages each.


The Emergence of Artificial Intelligence: Learning to Learn

AI Magazine

The classical approach to the acquisition of knowledge and reason in artificial intelligence is to program the facts and rules into the machine. Unfortunately, the amount of time required to program the equivalent of human intelligence is prohibitively large. An alternative approach allows an automaton to learn to solve problems through iterative trial-and-error interaction with its environment, much as humans do. To solve a problem posed by the environment, the automaton generates a sequence or collection of responses based on its experience. The environment evaluates the effectiveness of this collection, and reports its evaluation to the automaton. The automaton modifies its strategy accordingly, and then generates a new collection of responses. This process is repeated until the automaton converges to the correct collection of responses. The principles underlying this paradigm, known as collective learning systems theory are explained and applied to a simple game, demonstrating robust learning and dynamic adaptivity.


Robot, Eye, and ROI: Technology Transformation Versus Technology Transfer

AI Magazine

I want to discuss two aspects of technology transfer. It took a committee several years to come up automation. Then I want to give my two cents worth on with this. It has a lot of words and you can't understand AI as a business activity. Interestingly enough, so does My particular focus is on commercial AI, that is, products Europe. The United States is dead last in utilizing this that incorporate AI that are being sold for profit, as technology-most of which came out of U.S. industry and opposed to "practical" AI, in which AI is incorporated into AI labs. The definition we used at Machine Intelligence views Commercial AI products take the form of equipment, a robot as a computer system with a peripheral attached systems, or software. This forces a different view of a robot, a of demonstrated successes in artificial intelligence systemsmaybe view that is useful in actually thinking about applications.


Differing Methodological Perspectives in Artificial Intelligence Research

AI Magazine

A variety of proposals for preferred methodological approaches has been advanced in the recent artificial intelligence (AI) literature. Rather than advocating a particular approach, this article attempts to explain the apparent confusion of efforts in the field in terms of differences among underlying methodological perspectives held by practicing researchers. The article presents a review of such perspectives discussed in the existing literature and then considers a descriptive and relatively specific typology of these differing research perspectives. It is argued that researchers should make their methodological orientations explicit when communicating research results, to increase both the quality of research reports and their comprehensibility for other participants in the field. For a reader of the AI literature, an understanding of the various methodological perspectives will be of immediate benefit, giving a framework for understanding and evaluating research reports. In addition, explicit attention to methodological commitments might be a step towards providing a coherent intellectual structure that can be more easily assimilated by newcomers to the field.


Starting a Knowledge Engineering Project: A Step-By-Step Approach

AI Magazine

Getting started on a new knowledge engineering project is a difficult and challenging task, even for those who have done it before. For those who haven't, the task can often prove impossible. One reason is that the requirements-oriented methods and intuitions learned in the development of other types of software do not carry over well to the knowledge engineering task. Another reason is that methodologies for developing expert systems by extracting, representing, and manipulating an expert's knowledge have been slow in coming. At Tektronix, we have been using step-by-step approach to prototyping expert systems for over two years now. The primary features of this approach are that it gives software engineers who do not know knowledge engineering an easy place to start, and that it proceeds in a step-by-step fashion from initiation to implementation without inducing conceptual bottlenecks into the development process. This methodology has helped us collect the knowledge necessary to implement several prototype knowledge-based systems, including a troubleshooting assistant for the Tektronix FG-502 function generator and an operator's assistant for a wave solder machine.


Differing Methodological Perspectives in Artificial Intelligence Research

AI Magazine

A variety of proposals for preferred methodological approaches has been advanced in the recent artificial intelligence (AI) literature. The article presents a review of such perspectives discussed in the existing literature and then considers a descriptive and relatively specific typology of these differing research perspectives. It is argued that researchers should make their methodological orientations explicit when communicating research results, to increase both the quality of research reports and their comprehensibility for other participants in the field. For a reader of the AI literature, an understanding of the various methodological perspectives will be of immediate benefit, giving a framework for understanding and evaluating research reports.


Artificial Intelligence Research at General Electric

AI Magazine

Further, new application domains such as computer -aided design (CAD), computer- aided manufacturing (CAM), and image understanding based on formal logic require novel concepts in knowledge representation and inference beyond the capabilities of current production rule systems. Fundamental research in artificial intelligence is concentrated at Corporate Research and Development (CR&D), with advanced development and applications pursued in parallel efforts by operating departments. The fundamental research and advanced applications activities are strongly coupled, providing research teams with opportunities for field evaluations of new concepts and systems. This article summarizes current research projects at CR&D and gives an overview of applications within the company.


The Dark Ages of AI: A Panel Discussion at AAAI-84

AI Magazine

This panel, which met in Austin, Texas, discussed the "deep unease among AI researchers who have been around more than the last four years or so ... that perhaps expectations about AI are too high, and that this will eventually result in disaster."