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Purposive Understanding

Classics

... we began to program a computer understanding system thatwould attempt to process input texts. An item crucial to our ability to accomplishthis task was what we called a script. A script is a frequently repeated causalchain of events that describes a standard situation. In understanding, when it ispossible to notice that one of these standard event chains has been initiated,then it is possible to understand predictively. That is, if we know we are in arestaurant then we can understand where an "order" fits with what we justheard, who might be ordering what from whom, what preconditions (menu,sitting down) might have preceded the "order", and what is likely to happennext. All this information comes from the restaurant script.Hayes, J.E., D. Michie, and L. I. Mikulich (Eds.), Machine Intelligence 9, Ellis Horwood.



Relational Programming

Classics

In this paper we have shown how it is possible to use certain combinators onrelations to produce an interpretation of a class of clauses (Horn Clauses) inpredicate logic. The work was inspired by a particular view of the task of writingcertain kinds of program, but has not yet given rise to a system implementedon a digital computer, although some initial studies have been made.Hayes, J.E., D. Michie, and L. I. Mikulich (Eds.), Machine Intelligence 9, Ellis Horwood.



Solving Mechanics problems using meta-level inference

Classics

Our purpose in studying natural language understanding in conjunction with problem solving is to bring together the constraints of what formal representation can actually be obtained with the question of what knowledge is required in order to solve a wide range of problems in a semantically rich domain. We believe that these issues cannot sensibly be tackled in isolation. In practical terms we have had the benefits of an increased awareness of common problems in both areas and a realisation that some of our techniques are applicable to both the control of inference and the control of parsing. Early work on solving mathematical problems stated in natural language was done by Bobrow (STUDENT - (i]) and Chamiak (CARPS - [5]). However the rudimentary parsing and simple semantic structures used by Bobrow and Charniak are inadequate for any but the easiest problems. Our intention has been to build on B/RG Chris This work was supported by SRC grant number 94493 and an SRC research studentship for Mellish.


A theory of approximate reasoning

Classics

In J. E. Hayes, D. Michie, and L. I. Mikulich (Eds.), Machine Intelligence 9. Chichester, England: Ellis Horwood Ltd., 149-195


Interactive transfer of expertise: Acquisition of new inference rules

Classics

Summary of Ph.D. dissertation, Computer Science Dept., Stanford University (1979)."TEIRESIAS is a program designed to provide assistance on the task of building knowledge-based systems. It facilitates the interactive transfer of knowledge from a human expert to the system, in a high level dialog conducted in a restricted subset of natural language. This paper explores an example of TEIRESIAS in operation and demonstrates how it guides the acquisition of new inference rules. The concept of meta-level knowledge is described and illustrations given of its utility in knowledge acquisition and its contribution to the more general issues of creating an intelligent program."Also in:Readings in Artificial Intelligence, ed. Webber, Bonnie Lynn and Nils J. Nilsson, Palo Alto, CA: Tioga Publishing Co., 1981.Orig. in IJCAI-77, vol.1, pp. 321 ff. Preprint in Stanford HPP Report #HPP-77-9.See also: Artificial Intelligence, 12[#2]:409-427. Readings in Artificial Intelligence, ed. Webber, Bonnie Lynn and Nils J. Nilsson, Palo Alto, CA: Tioga Publishing Co., 1981



Modelling Distributed Systems

Classics

Distributed systems are multi-processor information processing systems whichdo not rely on the central shared memory for communication. The importanceof distributed systems has been growing with the advent of "computer networks"of a wide spectrum: networks of geographically distributed computers at one end,and tightly coupled systems built with a large number of inexpensive physicalprocessors at the other end. Both kinds of distributed system are made availableby the rapid progress in the technology of large-scale integrated circuits. Yetlittle has been done in the research on semantics and programming methodologiesfor distributed information processing systems.Our main research goal is to understand and describe the behaviour of suchdistributed systems in seeking the maximum benefit of employing multi-processorcomputation schemata.Hayes, J.E., D. Michie, and L. I. Mikulich (Eds.), Machine Intelligence 9, Ellis Horwood.